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Nutrition chapter 6 continued
Terms in this set (52)
Describe the breakdown of proteins in the mouth to the stomach
MOUTH-proteins are only broken down by mechanical digestion; chewed crushed, and moistened
STOMACH-HCL denatures protein strands AND converts pepsinogen into pepsin.
What does gastrin control?
production of HCL and release of pepsin
Even though pepsin is a protein, why is it not denatured by HCL in the stomach?
it is an enzyme, its evolved to work in acidic environment
What are the enzymes called that digest proteins in the small intestine?
What secretes enzymes that digest proteins into oligopeptides, tripeptides, dipeptides, and single amino acids?
pancreas and small intestine
Once amino acids are transported to the liver, what then are they converted to?
glucose or fat, combined to build new proteins, used for energy, released into bloodstream
What determines the quality of a protein?
The quantity of essential amino acids in a protein
What does digestibility mean?
how well our bodies can digest a protein
What are highly digestable foods? And how many Amino acids can we absorb from these sources?
animal protein sources, soy products. more than 90% of the amino acids absorbed
Are complete or incomplete proteins more digestible?
What does a nitrogen balance do?
determines a persons protein needs
How is nitrogen excreted?
through the bodys processes of recycling or using proteins
Athletes who diet are at risk for?
How is nitrogen balance calculated?
the difference between nitrogen intake and nitrogen excretion
What is it called when people consume more nitrogen than is excreted, the body is retaining the protein?
Positive nitrogen balance
At what 3 times does positive nitrogen balance occur?
3. recovery from illness or protein deficiency
Describe negative nitrogen balance?
excrete more nitrogen than they consume, body is losing protein
At what 5 times does negative nitrogen balance occur?
1. severe illness
4. injuries w/ significant blood loss
When is a person in nitrogen balance?
when nitrogen intake equals nitrogen excretion (healthy and nonpregnant)
What is the RDA for protein for sedentary people?
0.8 g/kg of body weight per day
AMDR for protein?
Which 4 groups of people need higher levels of proteins?
3. pregnant/lactating women
4. active and vegetarians
Who is at risk for low protein intakes?
What foods are rich in proteins?
dairy products; legumes, soy products, grains
What are fruits and vegetables more high in?
fibers, vitamin & minerals. Carbohydrates; helps build and maintain tissues
Why might legumes (that are high in fiber, iron, calcium, and B vitamins) reduce the risk for heart disease? What might legumes also lower?
lower blood cholesterol levels. risk for cancer
Legumes are not complete with B12, C, or A, or methionine. What does this make legumes?
not nutritionally complete
Consuming _____of nuts per week significantly reduces peoples risk for cardiovascular disease?
What is a protein product derived from fermented fungus?
What is the plant essential to the diet of ancient incas that they considered sacred and is a pasta?
What is the term used for the practice of restricting the diet to food substances of plan origin, including vegetables, fruits, grains, and nuts?
Typically excludes or limit red meat; may also avoid other meats?
Pesco means "fish", this is the only animal source of protein in this diet, excludes poultry?
Excludes animal flesh and seafood?
Relies on milk and cheese, excludes eggs?
Excludes dairy, flesh, and seafood products?
Only plant based foods, does not provide adequate Vitamin B12, zinc, iron, or calcium?
Vegan or strict vegan
Only brown rice and small amounts of water or herbal tea are consumed, can cause malnutrition and death?
Deficient in protein, calcium, zinc, iron, vitamin B12, riboflavin, and other nutrients?
What are 4 health benefits of vegetarians?
1. Reduced fat and total energy--> reduced risk for obesity
2. Lower B/P
3. Heart disease
4. Reduced risk for colon cancer
How does a vegetarian diet help reduce the risk for heart disease?
lower saturated fat intake and higher consumption of antioxidants in plant based foods
What vitamins should vegetarians pay close attention to consuming? Minerals?
Vitamins B12, D, riboflavin (B2) Minerals zinc and iron
Too much protein can be harmful, what 3 ways can high protein intake do?
1. High cholestrol
2. Bone loss
3. Risk for Kidney disease
It is important for people who consume a lot of protein to drink more water, why is this?
eating more protein increases protein metabolism and urea production
What is protein-energy malnutrition? What are two diseases that that can follow?
when a person consumes too little protein and energy , this is the result. Two diseases that can follow are Marasmus and Kwashiorker
What is the disease that results from grossly inadequate intakes of protein, energy, and other nutrients.
How can you treat Marasmus?
correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, provide protein and carbs once the condition has stabilized, fat introduced much later
What does Kwashiorker result from?
low protein diet
What occurs when an infant is weaned early due to the arrival of a subsequent baby?
When will you typically see Kwashiorker?
1-3 years who no longer drink breast milk
What are three symptoms of Kwashiorker?
1. Edema from fluid and electrolyte imbalances
2. Fatty degeneration of the liver
3. Dry, brittle hair that changes color, straightens, and falls out easily
Protein energy malnutrition occurs in all countries and affects both ______and _____
children and adults
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