Psyc 391 Study Guide
Terms in this set (66)
- my perception (understanding or belief) about my group
- Also "what I believe you believe about me"
Jane Elliott's blue eyes/brown eyes classroom demonstration
Elliott teaches discrimination through an exercise, which labels participants as inferior or superior based solely upon the color of their eyes and exposes them to the experience of being a minority.
Unconscious defense mechanisms
a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person.
Two types of stigma
1. Discredited Stigma: "differentness" is already known about or is immediately evident
2. Discreditable Stigma: "differentness" is neither known about by those present nor immediately perceivable by them
stigma's five dimensions
- Course (stability)
- Concealability (Private, hidden stigmas)
- Aesthetic qualities (attractiveness)
- Origin (belief is important to origin)
- Peril: perceived dangerousness
Example of stigma's five dimensions
Example: HIV/AIDS (Herek, 1990)
Course: HIV infection is degenerative and not alterable
Concealability: although concealable early in its course, later stages of HIV infection and AIDS are rarely hidden from others
Aesthetics: HIV/AIDS physically disables and disfigures and is therefore aesthetically repellent
Origin: Its origin is often, although not always, blamed on behaviors and choices ("gay disease")
Peril: HIV/AIDS is contagious and poses risks to others
is a psychological attribution concept describing the difficulty that members of stigmatized or negatively stereotyped groups may have in interpreting feedback.
example of attributional ambiguity
a person who perceives him- or herself as stigmatized can attribute negative feedback to prejudice.
label or stigma applied on you because of association with stigmatized individual
Three main issues that affect daily lives of "tokens":
- Heightened visibility (Performance pressure)
- Assimilation (Token's characteristics distorted to fit expected stereotype)
the practice of making only a symbolic effort to do a particular thing, especially by recruiting a small number of people from underrepresented groups, in order to give the appearance of sexual or racial equality
Debilitating effect of worrying or being anxious about confirming a stereotype about one's group
Short and long term effects of stereotype threat
ST: Can produce pathophysiological as well as psychological effects: e.g., hypertension, etc.
LT: can threaten a person's sense of self-integrity
- This threat to self-integrity damages motivation, performance, and well-being
over-generalizations about the characteristics of an entire group
A set of characteristics associated with a cognitive (component of prejudice) is...
- Come from shared beliefs that are integral part of a culture
- Can be accurate or inaccurate
- Can be descriptive and prescriptive
- Can be positive or negative
is a strategy for coping with prolonged exposure to stresses such as social discrimination by expending high levels of effort which results in accumulating physiological costs.
involves individual escape from membership in a negative group, either through disidentification or through dissociation.
Hate Crimes (also called Bias Crimes)
- Criminal actions against target group members/property
types of hate crime offenders
- All cultures have established sets of beliefs about men and women and the traits and roles they should possess. (both descriptive and prescriptive elements).
- Male vs. Female characteristics
- "Opposite sex"—gender polarization
- Bipolar assumption vs. Dualistic Views
- Agentic vs. communal traits
- there is a good and evil way to be, that people and things should be categorized as such
- Dualistic thinking is the way most people think and act, it is the "us vs. them" syndrome.
Agentic vs. communal traits
- agentic (Masculine) - dedicated, charismatic, intelligent, determined, aggressive, competitive
- communal (feminine) - caring, sensitive, honest, understanding. compassionate, sympathetic
states that societies tend to define femininity and masculinity as polar opposite genders, such that male-acceptable behaviors and attitudes are not seen as appropriate for women, and vice versa.
gender roles theory
a set of societal norms dictating the types of behaviors which are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
social roles theory
a perspective in sociology and in social psychology that considers most of everyday activity to be the acting out of socially defined categories (e.g., mother, manager, teacher). Each role is a set of rights, duties, expectations, norms and behaviors that a person has to face and fulfill.
is the relative prominence of the face in the portrayal of men and women; media tend to focus more on men's faces and women's bodies.
hostility to or prejudice against Jews.
brief or commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or not, negative sights and insults towards members of oppressed groups. (i.e. "That's so gay!")
jigsaw classroom technique for reducing prejudice
colorblind approaches to reducing prejudice
- It is beneficial with minorities and children because children overgeneralize differences.
- The benefits of embracing ethnic-racial identities
multicultural approaches to reducing prejudice
1. Recognizing and valuing differences
2. Teaching and learning about differences
3. Fostering personal friendships and organizational alliances
is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood
realistic conflict theory
is used to explain the conflict, negative prejudices, and discrimination that occur between groups of people who are in competition for the same resources.
- Heterosexuality is what's normal, natural, and
- Non-heterosexual behavior or identity is deviant, unnatural, and undesirable
- Derogation, denigration and stigmatization of non-heterosexual orientation
Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It can include the presumption that other people are heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the only norm and therefore superior.
unreasoning fear of, dislike of or prejudice against homosexuals and homosexuality
prejudice or bias toward people based on their gender; it encompasses beliefs (e.g., in different roles for men and women), emotions (e.g., disliking powerful women), and behavior (e.g., sexual harassment) that support gender inequality.
indicates what group members should do or be like to avoid derogation or punishment by others
perceivers' beliefs about the characteristics of a social group and indicate what group members do (CEOS are male, teachers are female)
Old-fashioned—sexism characterized by endorsement of traditional gender roles, differential treatment of women and men, and stereotypes about female competence
is a theoretical framework which proposes that sexism has two sub-components: "hostile sexism" and "benevolent sexism".
Example of benevolent sexism
when a guy asks his girlfriend if she can fold his clothes because she's "better at chores than he is."
denial of discrimination against women, hostility toward equality for women, nonsupport of programs and legislation intended to help women
benevolent vs. hostile sexism
- both sets of attitudes relegate women to traditional stereotyped roles
- "women are wonderful" effect
- "carrot and stick" metaphor - reward and punishment
- experience one of two types of ambivalence to a given woman (Conflicted or Unconflicted ambivalence)
- negative, hostile attitudes toward women
- positive, yet traditional, attitudes toward women
"women are wonderful" effect
- the association between women and nurturing characteristics
- This bias is suggested as a form of benevolent sexism towards females
"carrot and stick" metaphor
the use of a combination of reward and punishment to induce a desired behavior.
Ambivalence is a state of having simultaneous conflicting "mixed" reactions, beliefs, or feelings towards some object.
- Spousal abuse (Marital rape)
- Date Violence (Date rape)
- Child abuse (Physical, sexual, neglect, verbal, emotional)
- Elder (and dependent adult) abuse and exploitation
What can be domestic violence?
Why don't domestic violence victims leave?
The myth of "pure evil"
8 common stereotypes of what pure evil is or what it looks like.
Consequences of the "Myth of Pure Evil"
- often violence is a result of mutual, escalating provocations and grievances."
- Most people who do evil do not think of themselves as evil.
- The perpetrators of evil are often ordinary, well-meaning human beings with their own reasons, and rationalizations for what they are doing.
- The world often breaks down into us against them, and it almost invariably turns out that evil lies on the side of 'them'".
- People inevitably begin to think that their group is good. But if we are good, and you are our opponents, and evil is the opponent of good, then you must be evil."
Baumeister's four roots of evil
- Instrumental violence: Evil as a means to an end
- Egoistic violence: Evil as payback
- Fanatical violence: Evil in the service of idealism
- The joy of hurting: Evil as a source of pleasure
the ability to understand and share the feelings of another.
- Lack of remorse/guilt
- Callousness/lack of empathy
- Glibness/superficial charm
- Grandiose sense of self worth
- Absence of a clearly defined moral system
- No conscious mechanisms
- Incapable of feeling guilt or shame
- Here & now focus
- Grandios feeling of not facing punishment or actions
Psychopathy Development defect?
Heredity & environmental
What are the two dimensions of psychopathy?
Affective & interpersonal traits
opponent process theory
- Richard Solomon developed a theory of motivation/emotion that views emotions as pairs of opposites
- states that when one emotion is experienced, the other is suppressed.
- is the expression of physical or verbal force against self or other, compelling action against one's will on pain of being hurt.
- Cycle of violence multigenerational pattern
Types of Violence
- Instrumental aggression
- Hostile aggression
- Impulsive/stimulus- seeking violence
Family (domestic) violence
diffusion of responsibility
in groups, the tendency of members to avoid taking action because they assume that others will
Group situations that encourage anonymity, and lead to a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint
Token's characteristics distorted to fit expected stereotype (i.e. "See I knew women weren't good at this job")
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