Exam 2: Schemas and Stereotypes
Terms in this set (16)
Well-organized structures of cognitions about some social entity such as a person, group, role, or event
-Cognitive structures that describe personalities of others
-Ex: Specific individuals (Obama) or types of individuals (extroverts, sociopaths)
Structures that organize our conception of our own qualities and characteristics
-Indicate which attributes/behaviors are typical of persons occupying a particular role in a group
-Ex: occupational roles
-Schemas about important, recurring events
-Ex: weddings, funerals, graduation
Why Do We Use Schemas?
1) They save time and mental energy.
2) Help us process info faster.
3) Guide our inferences about people and objects.
4) Reduce ambiguity.
5) Make certain kind of facts more salient and easier to remember.
Advantages of Schemas
1) Contain info about how people think and behave.
2) Help people analyze and respond in certain situations.
3) Provide guidelines for how to behave in various social events.
4) Explain the social behavior of others.
Disadvantages of Schemas
1) May restrict, bias, or distort what we attend to and thus cause us to overlook important info.
2) High resistant to change bc we seek info that support our schemas.
-A fixed set of characteristics that attributed to the members of a particular social group
-Can be negative or positive
-The promise of being viewed through the lens of a positive stereotype
-Leads one to perform in a way that confirms the stereotype
-Ex: Asians and high grades
-A disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated on this negative stereotype
-Ex: black vs. whites in athletic/strategic golf task
Consequences of Stereotype Threat
1) Decreased performance
2) Distancing from stereotype group
3) Task discounting
Ways to Reduce Stereotype Threat
1) Reframe the task
2) Focus less on social identities
3) Assurance that one can succeed through affirmation or role models
-When a person doesn't meet the expectations for a stereotyped group, we see the individual as an exception rather than creating/dismantling the stereotype
-Ex: Danica Patrick; white friend that can dance
Effects of Stereotypes
1) Exaggeration of differences among groups
2) Seeing other groups more homogeneous than they really are
3) We evaluate individuals differently than groups
4) We evaluate people more strongly when their behavior violates our stereotypes
Why Are Stereotypes So Stable?
1) Subtyping prevents construction of new ideas about groups
2) Stereotypes bias interpretation; politician vs. physicist's statements were untrue
3) Confirmation bias