49 terms

Cancer Glossary A-C

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acute lymphocyctic leukemia
High WBC count in blood and marrow Lympocyctes do not mature are too numerous and do not fight infections
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
rapidly progressive neoplasm of cells committed to the myeloid line of development
adenocarcinoma
a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
adenoma
tumor of a gland
Allele
An alternative form of a gene.
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
A blood test that measures the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the mothers' blood during pregnancy as an indicator of possible birth defects in a fetus
Ames test
A procedure using bacteria to identify potential carcinogens
Anaplastic
characterized by a loss of differentiation of cells and their orientation to one another; a characteristic of malignant tumors
Anglogenesis
the formation and differentiation of blood vessels
Angiosarcoma
cancer of a blood vessel or lymphatic vessel
Apoptosis (programmed cell death)
Occurs when a cell (of a multicellular organism) is deprived of chemical signals
asymptomatic
showing no symptoms of disease
ataxia telangiectasis
Rare, hereditary disorder characterized by problems with muscle coordination, immunodeficiency, inadequate DNA repair, and an increased risk of developing cancer.
atypical hyperplasia
benign (noncancerous) condition in which cells have abnormal features and are increased in number
basal cells
stem cells that replace taste cells every 7 to 10 days
basal cell carcinoma
malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis
benign
kind and gentle
benign tumor
An abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body.
biological therapy
use of the body's own defenses to destroy tumor cells
biopsy
the removal of living tissue from the body for diagnostic examination
bone marrow
A soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
bone marrow aspiration
needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic examination
bone marrow biopsy
microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed with a needle
bone marrow transplant
transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
bone scan (nuclear medicine test)
used to detect the presence of metastatic disease of the bone and to monitor degenerative bone disease
brachytherapy
the use of radioactive materials in contact with or implanted into the tissues to be treated
BRCA1
breast cancer gene 1 located on chromosome 17 Normally it helps restrain growth. Altered versions predisposes an individual to breast, ovarian, prostate or other types of cancer
BRCA2
breast cancer gene 2 located on chromosome 13 normally helps to suppress growth. A person with mutations has a higher risk for breast, ovarian, prostate or other types of cancer
breast reconstruction
Surgery to rebuild a breast's shape after a mastectomy.
Burkitt's lymphoma
Type of non-Hodgkins lymphoma usually in children and juveniles. Caused by a 8:14 translocation; associated with Epstein Barr Virus
The disease causes rapidly growing tumors in the abdomen, jaw or CNS
Cancer
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
cancer stem cells
stem cells that divide and yield cancer cells and abnormal specialized cells
Carcinogen
A cancer-causing substance
Carcinogenesis
development of cancer
carcinoma
a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue
carcinoma in situ
CEAa malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues
CEA assay
Laboratory test to measure the level of
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a substance that
is sometimes found in an increased amount in the
blood of patients with certain cancers, with some
other diseases, or who smoke.
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
chemotherapy
The use of drugs to treat diseases such as cancer
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
a form of leukemia characterized by the accumulation of abnormal, mature lymphocytes lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell important for immunity)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
a form of leukemia characterized by the accumulation of abnormal, mature granulocytes (granulocytes are a type of white blood cell)
clinical trials
experiments that study the effectiveness of medical treatments on actual patients
colonoscopy
the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
combination chemotherapy
use of several chemotherapeutic agents together for the treatment of tumors
computed tomography (CT)
brain-imaging method using computer-controlled X-rays of the brain
contact inhibition
the cessation of cell division in response to contact with other cells
CT scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
Cytokines
proteins secreted by cytotoxic T cells to aid in antigen destruction
cytotoxic
poisonous to cells
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