NBCT EA/Social Studies-History Component 1
Terms in this set (124)
Lee Resolution (1776)
Resolution in the Second Continental Congress proposing independence for the American colonies.
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Adopted by Continental Congress on July 4.
Articles of Confederation (1777)
Served as the first US constitution until 1789; created a weak central government with no power to tax, no common currency, no executive or judicial branches, and gave each state one vote regardless of size.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Signed between the American colonies and Great Britain, ended the Revolution and recognized the USA as an independent nation.
Virginia Plan (1787)
Drafted by James Madison, it proposed a strong central government composed of three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial.
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Provided a method for admitting new states to the Union from territory northwest of the Ohio River.
Constitution of the United States (1787)
Drafted in secret by delegates to the Constitutional Convention, this four-page document established the government of the United States.
The Federalist Papers (1787-1788)
Series of 85 essays published by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay to promote ratification of the Constitution.
Federal Judiciary Act (1789)
One of the first acts of the new Congress was to establish a Federal court system through this Act signed by President Washington.
Bill of Rights (1791)
Defined citizens' rights in relation to the newly established government under the Constitution.
Cotton Gin (1794)
Eli Whitney's design to separate cotton fiber from seed; a profitable technology to agricultural production in America.
President Washington's Farewell Address (1796)
Advised citizens to view themselves as a cohesive unit and avoid political parties; warning to be wary of attachments and entanglements with other nations.
Alien & Sedition Acts (1798)
Passed in preparation for anticipated war with France, these tightened restrictions on foreign-born Americans and limited speech critical of the Government.
Jefferson's Secret Message to Congress Regarding the Lewis & Clark Expedition (1803)
Asked Congress for $2,500 to explore the West--all the way to the Pacific Ocean. At the time, the territory did not belong to the US. Congress agreed to fund the expedition that would be led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
United States purchased 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River for $15 million from France. The US doubled its size, expanding the nation westward.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Supreme Court established the right of courts to determine the constitutionality of the actions of the other two branches of government.
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
Ended the War of 1812, fought between Great Britain and the United States.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
This case involved the power of Congress to charter a bank, which sparked the broader issue of the division of powers between states and the federal Government.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a non-slave state at the same time, so as not to upset the balance between slave and free states in the nation. It also outlawed slavery above the 36"30' latitude line in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
European powers were obligated to respect the Western Hemisphere as the United States' sphere of interest.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Supreme Court ruled that Congress has the power to "regulate commerce" and Federal law takes precedence over state laws.
President Andrew Jackson's Message to Congress 'On Indian Removal' (1830)
Called for the relocation of eastern Native American tribes to land west of the Mississippi River, in order to open new land for settlement by citizens of the United States.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
Ended the war between the United States and Mexico. Mexico ceded 55% of its territory, including parts of present-day Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah, to the US.
Compromise of 1850
Provided for slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty in the admission of new states, California joined the union as a free state, it prohibited the slave trade in the District of Columbia, settled a Texas boundary dispute, and established a stricter fugitive slave act.
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Repealed the Missouri Compromise, which outlawed slavery above the 36"30' latitude line in the Louisiana territories and reopened the national struggle over slavery in the western territories.
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
Ruled that slaves were not citizens of the US and could not expect protection from the Federal Government or the courts. The opinion also stated that Congress had no authority to ban slavery from a territory.
Surrender of Fort Sumter (1861)
The first engagement of the Civil War. After 34 hours of fighting, the Union surrendered the fort to Confederates.
Homestead Act (1862)
Accelerated settlement of the western territory by granting adult heads of families 160 acres of surveyed public land for a filing fee and 5 years of continuous residence on that land.
Pacific Railway Act (1862)
Provided federal subsidies in land and loans for the construction of a transcontinental railroad across the United States.
Morrill Act (1862)
Made it possible for new western states to establish colleges for their citizens. The land-grant institutions opened opportunities to thousands of farmers and working people previously excluded from higher education.
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
Stated "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious areas "are, and henceforward shall be free."
War Department General Order 143 (1863)
Created the US Colored Troops. By the end of the Civil War, roughly 179,000 black men (10 percent of the Union Army) served as soldiers in the U.S. Army and 19,000 served in the Navy.
Gettysburg Address (1863)
Speaking of a "new birth of freedom," Lincoln delivered one of the most memorable speeches in U.S. history.
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
Created a framework for Reconstruction and readmittance of Confederate states to the Union. The Bill required that 50 percent of a state's white males take a loyalty oath to be readmitted to the Union and states were required to give blacks the right to vote.
President Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address (1865)
Spoke of mutual forgiveness between North and South, asserting that the true mettle of a nation lies in its capacity for charity.
Articles of Agreement Relating to the Surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia (1865)
According to the terms, the men of Lee's army could return home in safety if they pledged to end the fighting and deliver their arms to the Union Army.
13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1865)
Abolished slavery in the United States.
Purchase of Alaska (1868)
For $7.2 million (less that 2 cents an acre) the US acquired nearly 600,000 square miles. Called "Seward's Folly" or "Seward's Icebox" until 1896 and the Klondike.
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
The United States recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation, set aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people.
14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1868)
Extended rights granted by the Bill of Rights to former slaves. One legacy of Reconstruction was the determined struggle of black and white citizens to make the promise of the this amendment a reality.
15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1870)
Granted African American men the right to vote.
Act Establishing Yellowstone National Park (1872)
The response to endangered wilderness was the invention of the national park system. Yellowstone became the first Federally protected national park.
Thomas Edison's Patent Application for the Light Bulb (1880)
Documented the principles of the incandescent lamp that paved the way for the universal domestic use of electric light.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Restricted immigration and provided a 10-year moratorium on Chinese labor immigration. For the first time, federal law proscribed entry of an ethnic working group on the premise that it endangered the good order of certain localities.
Pendleton Act (1883)
Following the assassination of President Garfield by a disgruntled job seeker, this established a merit-based system of selecting government officials and supervising their work.
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
Created the ICC to oversee the conduct of the railroad industry. Railroads became the first industry subject to federal regulation, and this law addressed the problem of railroad monopolies by setting guidelines for how railroads could do business. It became law with the support of both major political parties and pressure groups from all regions of the country.
Dawes Act (1887)
Emphasized the treatment of Native Americans as individuals rather than as members of tribes and allowed the President to break up reservation land, which was held in common by the members of a tribe, into allotments to be parceled out to individuals.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
Outlawed monopolistic business practices; based on the constitutional power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Upheld a Louisiana state law that allowed for "equal but separate accommodations for the white and colored races."
De Lôme Letter (1898)
Written by the Spanish Ambassador to the US, it criticized President William McKinley by calling him weak and concerned only with gaining the favor of the crowd. It's publication helped generate public support for a war with Spain over the issue of independence for Cuba.
Joint Resolution Annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States (1898)
Efforts to preserve national heritage ran headlong into the force of American expansionism. Control of the islands, strategically located to serve as a mid-Pacific naval installation, seemed crucial. With a base firmly established at Pearl Harbor, the US officially annexed Hawaii.
Platt Amendment (1903)
Treaty between the U.S. and Cuba. It permitted extensive U.S. involvement in Cuban international and domestic affairs for the enforcement of Cuban independence.
Theodore Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1905)
Stated that not only were the nations of the Western Hemisphere not open to colonization by European powers, but the US had the responsibility to preserve order and protect life and property in those countries.
16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1913)
Established Congress's right to impose a Federal income tax. Progressives in Congress attached a provision for an income tax to a tariff bill. Conservatives, hoping to kill the idea for good, proposed a constitutional amendment enacting such a tax; they believed an amendment would never receive ratification by three-fourths of the states. Much to their surprise, the amendment was ratified by one state legislature after another.
17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1913)
Modified Article I, section 3, of the Constitution by allowing voters to cast direct votes for U.S. Senators. Prior to its passage, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916
The 1900 census revealed that 2 million children were working in mills, mines, fields, factories, stores, and on city streets across the United States. This act limited the working hours of children and forbade the interstate sale of goods produced by child labor.
Zimmermann Telegram (1917)
Coded message sent from Germany to Mexico proposing a military alliance against the US. The obvious threats to the United States inflamed American public opinion against Germany and helped convince Congress to declare war.
Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War Against Germany (1917)
The resulting vote brought the US into World War I. Wilson declared that not only had America's rights as a neutral been violated but that, "The world must be made safe for democracy."
President Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points (1918)
Program for world peace taken as the basis for peace negotiations at the end of WWI. Called for the abolition of secret treaties, a reduction in arms, an adjustment in colonial claims in the interests of both native peoples and colonists, and freedom of the seas.
19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920)
Granted women the right to vote.
Boulder Canyon Project Act (1928)
Authorized construction of the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River and the All-American Canal to the Imperial Valley in California.
Tennessee Valley Authority Act (1933)
Created the TVA to oversee the construction of dams to control flooding, improve navigation, and create cheap electric power in the Tennessee Valley basin. Today, TVA is the largest public power company in the US.
National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)
Supervised fair trade codes and guaranteed laborers a right to collective bargaining. It sanctioned, supported, and enforced an alliance of industries. Antitrust laws were suspended, and companies were required to write "codes of fair competition" that effectively fixed prices and wages, established production quotas, and imposed restrictions on entry of other companies into the alliances.
National Labor Relations Act (1935)
Addressed relations between unions and employers in the private sector in a Congress sympathetic to labor unions. It applied to all employers involved in interstate commerce except airlines, railroads, agriculture, and government.
Social Security Act (1935)
Established a system of old-age benefits for workers, benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, aid for dependent mothers and children, the blind, and the physically handicapped. Before the 1930s, support for the elderly was a matter of local, state and family rather than a Federal concern.
President Franklin Roosevelt's Radio Address unveiling the second half of the New Deal (1936)
Announced a second set of measures to combat the Great Depression. These included a series of new relief programs such as the WPA and responded to criticism that the New Deal had not done enough by emphasizing continued plans for relief, reform, and recovery.
President Franklin Roosevelt's Annual Message to Congress (1941)
Became known as FDR's "Four Freedoms Speech." The four freedoms outlined were freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. As America became engaged in WWII, Norman Rockwell did a series of paintings illustrating the four freedoms as international war goals that went beyond defeating the Axis powers.
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
A system that allowed the US to lend or lease war supplies to any nation deemed "vital to the defense of the United States" -- meeting Great Britain's need for supplies and allowing the United States to prepare for war while remaining officially neutral.
Executive Order 8802 (1941)
Banned discriminatory employment practices by Federal agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war-related work. The order also established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the policy.
Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War Against Japan (1941)
The day after Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, FDR delivered this "Day of Infamy Speech." Immediately afterward, Congress declared war, and the United States entered World War II.
Executive Order 9066 (1942)
Authorized the evacuation of all persons deemed a threat to national security from the West Coast to relocation centers further inland. Lobbyists from western states, many representing competing economic interests or nativist groups, pressured Congress and the President to remove persons of Japanese descent from the west coast, both foreign born and American citizens.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act (1944)
Provided veterans of WWII funds for college, unemployment insurance, and housing. American Legion publicist Jack Cejnar called it "the GI Bill of Rights," as it offered Federal aid to help veterans adjust to civilian life.
Manhattan Project Notebook (1942)
Recorded the world's first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
United Nations Charter (1945)
Established in San Francisco, the organization's name originated with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1941 when he described the countries fighting against the Axis in World War II.
Truman Doctrine (1947)
Asking Congress for $400 million in military and economic assistance for Turkey and Greece. It guided U.S. diplomacy for the next 40 years and declared, "It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
Marshall Plan (1948)
Provided economic assistance to restore the infrastructure of postwar Europe. Congress appropriated $13.3 billion for capital and materials that enabled Europeans to rebuild the continent's economy. For the US, it provided markets for American goods, created reliable trading partners, and supported the development of stable democratic governments in Western Europe.
Executive Order 9981 (1948)
Established the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, committing the government to desegregating the military.
Armistice Agreement for the Restoration of the South Korean State (1953)
Formally ended the war in Korea. North and South Korea remain separate and occupy almost the same territory they had when the war began. It was the end of the longest negotiated armistice in history and is purely a military document—no nation is a signatory to the agreement.
Senate Resolution 301 (1954)
The Senate voted to censure Senator Joseph McCarthy, who led the fight in Congress to root out suspected Communists from the Federal Government. The censure described his behavior as "contrary to senatorial traditions."
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Ruled that separating children in public schools on the basis of race was unconstitutional. It overruled the "separate but equal" principle set forth in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case.
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (1956)
Authorized the building of highways throughout the nation, which would be the biggest public works project in the nation's history. Between 1954-56, there were several failed attempts to pass a national highway bill through the Congress; the main controversy was the apportionment of the funding between the federal government and the states.
Executive Order 10730 (1957)
Sent federal troops to maintain order and peace while the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, AR, took place.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Farewell Address (1961)
Warned against the establishment of a "military-industrial complex," but instead slow the push for increased defense spending despite pressure to build more military equipment during the Cold War's arms race. Nonetheless, the American military services and the defense industry had expanded in the 1950s.
President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address (1961)
Announced that "we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty."
Executive Order 10924 (1961)
President Kennedy established the Peace Corps. Goals included: 1) helping the people of interested countries and areas meet their needs for trained workers; 2) helping promote a better understanding of Americans in countries where volunteers served; and 3) helping promote a better understanding of peoples of other nations on the part of Americans.
Transcript of John Glenn's Official Communication with the Command Center (1962)
Records he first manned space orbit of the earth.
Test Ban Treaty (1963)
Signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. After Senate approval, the treaty banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water.
March on Washington (1963)
The highlight of the event, which attracted 250,000 people, was Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech.
Civil Rights Act (1964)
Prohibited discrimination in public places, provided for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal. This was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964)
U.S. ships had been attacked by the North Vietnamese. This joint resolution gave President Lyndon Johnson authority to increase U.S. involvement in the war between North and South Vietnam.
Social Security Act Amendments (1965)
Established Medicare, a health insurance program for the elderly, and Medicaid, a health insurance program for the poor.
Voting Rights Act (1965)
Outlawed discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting.
Document that required King John to allow certain liberties, and passed into law in 1225.
Letter from Christopher Columbus (1493)
A letter to Luis de Sant Angel announcing his discovery of America.
Mayflower Compact (1620)
A written agreement between the settlers at New Plymouth creating the first laws of the New World; drawn up with fair and equal laws, for the general good of the settlement and with the will of the majority.
"Give me liberty, or give me death" (1775)
Statement came at the end of a speech made to the Virginia House of Burgesses. Great Britain was preparing to use force to reduce the American colonies to a state of obedience and these words spurred the movement of resistance that, in the end, succeeded in establishing a new, independent republic in America.
President Nixon's Resignation Speech (1974)
Faced with certain impeachment following the Watergate scandal, he announced that he would resign the next day to begin "that process of healing which is so desperately needed in America."
Impeachment of Bill Clinton (1998)
This president was impeached on two charges--one of perjury and one of obstruction of justice--stemming from his extramarital affair with Monica Lewinsky and his testimony about the affair during a sexual harassment lawsuit filed. He was acquitted of these charges.
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson (1868)
He was impeached on eleven articles detailing "high crimes and misdemeanors." The primary charge was the violation of the Tenure of Office Act when he removed Edwin McMasters Stanton, Secretary of War (whom the Tenure of Office Act was largely designed to protect), from office.
Secession of Southern States (1860)
South Carolina acted first. State by state, conventions were held, and the Confederacy was formed. Within three months of Lincoln's election, seven states seceded from the Union.
Embargo Act of 1807
Imposed a general embargo that made any and all exports from the US illegal. It was sponsored by President Jefferson. The goal was to force Britain and France to respect American rights during the Napoleonic Wars.
Embargo on Cuba (1960-Present)
A commercial, economic, and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba.
First Bank of the United States (1791)
A national bank chartered for a term of twenty years by the Congress. Its establishment was part of a three-part expansion of federal fiscal power, along with federal mint and excise taxes. Alexander Hamilton believed a national bank was necessary to stabilize and improve the nation's credit, and to improve handling of the financial business of the US government under the newly enacted Constitution.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Ruled that "there can be no doubt that the Fifth Amendment privilege is available outside of criminal court proceedings and serves to protect persons in all settings..." A defendant "must be warned prior to any questioning that he has the right to remain silent, that anything he says can be used against him in a court of law, that he has the right to the presence of an attorney, and that if he cannot afford an attorney one will be appointed for him prior to any questioning if he so desires."
"Share the Wealth" (1934)
Huey Long's speech unveiling his plan designed to provide a decent standard of living to all Americans by spreading the nation's wealth among the people--"every man is a king."
Movement opposed to the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and opposed to the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. Led by Patrick Henry, who worried that the position of president, then a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy.
Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
Restricts the activities and power of labor unions. The act became law by overcoming President Truman's veto. Labor leaders called it the "slave-labor bill" while President Truman argued that it was a "dangerous intrusion on free speech."
Stamp Act (1756)
Act of British Parliament that exacted revenue from American colonies by imposing a duty on newspapers and legal/commercial documents. Colonial opposition led to the act's repeal and helped encourage the revolutionary movement.
Common Sense (1775)
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine advocating independence from Great Britain to people in the colonies. Paine connected independence with common dissenting Protestant beliefs as a means to present a distinct American political identity.
French for "leave alone," this theory became popular in the 18th century; the less the government is involved in free market capitalism, the better off business will be, and then by extension society as a whole.
Theories about how in the short run, and especially during recessions, economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total spending in the economy). Keynesian economics advocates a mixed economy--predominantly private sector, but with a role for government intervention during recessions.
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (2010)
Passed as a response to the Great Recession, it made changes in the financial regulatory environment that affect all federal financial regulatory agencies and almost every part of the nation's financial services industry. The aim of the law is, "To promote the financial stability of the United States by improving accountability and transparency in the financial system, to end 'too big to fail,' to protect the American taxpayer by ending bailouts, to protect consumers from abusive financial services practices, and for other purposes."
A macroeconomic theory which argues that growth can be most effectively created by investing in capital, and by lowering barriers on the production of goods and services. Consumers will benefit from a greater supply of goods and services at lower prices; furthermore, the investment and expansion of businesses will increase the demand for employees and create jobs. Typical policy recommendations are lower marginal tax rates and less government regulation.
Program of the US government to purchase assets and equity from financial institutions to strengthen its financial sector. It was a component of the government's measures to address the subprime mortgage crisis. The program originally authorized expenditures of $700 billion. The Dodd-Frank Act reduced the amount authorized to $475 billion.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act (1930)
Raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels. The dutiable tariff level was the second highest in the U.S. in 100 years and a majority of economists then and ever since view the Act, and the ensuing retaliatory tariffs by America's trading partners, as responsible for reducing American exports and imports by more than half.
Greenback Party (1874-1889)
An American political party with an anti-monopoly ideology.
Free Silver (1896)
Monetary policy using the "free coinage of silver" as opposed to the gold standard. Economists warned that the cheaper silver would drive the more expensive gold out of circulation. The debate pitted the pro-gold financial establishment of the Northeast, along with railroads, factories, and businessmen, against poor farmers who would benefit from higher prices for their crops (resulting from the prospective expansion of the money supply by allowing silver to also circulate as money).
Alexander Hamilton v. Thomas Jefferson (1791)
The necessary and proper clause (Article I of the Constitution), allowed Congress to make laws and provisions that were not part of the enumerated powers. Hamilton took a liberal reading of the clause and said that Congress should do anything it felt was necessary to carry out national responsibilities. Jefferson held that the clause meant Congress should only take actions that were absolutely necessary. When Hamilton proposed that the US charter a national bank in order to take care of Revolutionary War debt, create a single national currency, and stimulate the economy, Jefferson argued that the creation of a national bank was not a power granted under the enumerated powers. Both presented arguments to Washington, who ultimately agreed with Hamilton.
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
Created the central banking system of the United States, and created the authority to issue Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. Congress required that all nationally chartered banks become members of the Federal Reserve System.
California Gold Rush (1949)
Created a labor shortage as many Californians left jobs and went to the gold fields. This shortage created opportunities for immigrants who, when they finally reached California, found that gold was harder to find and less abundant than they dreamed. They consequently got jobs in the cities and towns that were quickly growing. This labor shortage also resulted in the exploitation of the Native Indians that was quite similar to slavery, without the official name.
Impact of Transcontinental Railroad
Easier transcontinental business travel allowed direct growth through expanding markets and cheaper distribution. This movement between coasts allowed business professionals to have a more expansive idea of their industry and allowed improved access to information and skills.
Expansion of Russia (1462-1945)
Ivan III and IV expanded Muscovy's borders by annexing the Novgorod Republic and settled the annexed territories with Muscovite/Russian servitors and peasants. After a period of political instability the Romanovs came to power (1613) and while western Europe colonized the new world, Russia expanded overland. This continued for centuries; by the end of the 19th century, the Russian Empire reached from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean, and for some time included colonies in the Americas and Africa. The colonial empire continued to grow under Soviet rule. Areas that were captured from the Nazis in 1944-1945 became part of the autonomous republics within the USSR.
Japanese Aggression (1931-1942)
In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria; in 1936, they established a puppet regime in Mongolia. In 1937, Japan invaded China, launching the Second Sino-Japanese War--a conflict between Japan, Mao Zedong's communists, and Chiang Kai-shek's nationalists. Throughout WWII these forces engaged in battle. Throughout 1941 and 1942, Japan bombed Pearl Harbor and invaded Southeast Asia, capturing Hong Kong, British Malaya and the Philippines.
The economic, military, cultural expansion of the United States on other countries. The concept of an American Empire was first popularized during Polk's presidency, who led the United States into the Mexican-American War of 1846, and the eventual annexation of California and other western territories.
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