KINE 3650 Exam 4 Ch. 10
Terms in this set (63)
4 Types of Motivation:
external motivation, introjected motivation, identified motivation, intrinsic motivation
_____________ for learning concerns the learner's drive to learn a skill that can be influenced in multiple ways related to various types.
Related to any type of monetary rewards, awards, grades, accolades, anything outside of the learners themselves
worst type of motivation
Refers to the motivation referred to when you are trying to maintain a certain level of self-esteem or pride or conversely avoiding shame or guilt
More autonomously form of external perhaps receiving money for the sport of interest, but you have identified as a salary to help with your family (basic needs) or charity work/outreach
Refers to that behavior by your internal awards
best type of motivation
concerns the learner's internalized drive
Deci and Ryan (2000) suggest that an individual's intrinsic motivation is largely determined by three basic needs:
autonomy (control of one's destiny), competence (skill mastery), and relatedness (being accepted within a social context)
An important motivational method is ___________, whereby learners are encouraged to adopt specific performance goals.
If one is asked to set their own goals, they will outperform the ____________ and ____________ goals.
experimenter-set goals and "do your best" goals
information that is provided to the learner from an external source
giving learners "ownership" over some of the components of practice; providing some control over the learning environment is thought to influence motivation and enhance learning
If you get to choose your own color ball while mini golfing and the other person is yoked to you, who will perform better?
choice group (self-selected)
determined entirely in advance and are not under the control of the learner
Motivation causes the basal ganglia to release ____________ which facilitates motor memory formation.
_________ is a modulator between motor memory formation.
____________ focus of attention is the best.
in which the learner gains information by watching another's performance
One useful addition to the collection of activities in a practice session is to ask the learner to rehearse skills to be learned _______, without performing actual, overt physical practice.
the learner thinks about the skills being learned, rehearses each of the steps sequentially, and imagines doing the actions that would result in achieving the goal
mental practice/cognitive rehearsal
Imagining/envisioning doing the actions
Thinking about the skill before I even perform it
Utilizing conscious visioning to place themselves in that environment before they even get to that environment
mental practice/cognitive rehearsal
________________ does contribute to learning, though the exact way it does this still unclear.
mental practice/cognitive rehearsal
Two classes of practice distribution based on the relative amounts of practice and rest provided:
massed and distributed
a practice schedule in which the amount of rest between practice trials is relatively short; the amount of rest between trials is often less than the time for a trial
a practice schedule in which the duration of rest between practice trials is relatively long; the time in practice is often less than the time at rest
provides relatively little rest between trials
calls for much more rest, perhaps with a rest period between trials that is as long as a trial itself
For ______________, there is no evidence that reducing the rest time through massed practice affects/degrades learning.
For _________________, distribution of practice has both a positive practice and a positive learning effect.
continuous tasks (running, cycling, swimming)
Longer rest periods have positive effects on
both performance and learning
Members of a class of movements have these characteristics:
-common movement sequencing exists among the elements
-common temporal, or rhythmical, organization exists
-the same action can often be carried out with different effectors (I.e. limbs)
-the same action can differ in surface features (I.e. speed) on 2 different occasions, which is specified by different movement parameters
The learner acquires a set of rules, called the schemas, that relate the surface features of an action (e.g. distances, speeds of throwing) to the parameter values necessary to produce those actions.
The learner acquires a set of rules, called the ____________, that relate the surface features of an action (e.g. distances, speeds of throwing) to the parameter values necessary to produce those actions.
Whenever a movement is made, the learner records the result as well as the parameter that was used for the _________. Eventually these relationships are generalized into a __________.
__________ practice enhances schema learning/generalizability.
practicing on a single member of a class of tasks
practicing several members of the class of tasks
Two types of variable practice:
blocked and random
a schedule of practice in which many variations of a class of actions are practiced; a lot more generalizable; helps with parameterization
a sequence in which only a single variation of a given class of tasks is experienced
practicing all trials of one task before shifting to the second, then to finish practice on the second before switching to the third
in which all the trials of a given task (for that day) are completed before moving on to the next task; typical of some drills in which a skill is repeated over and over, with minimal interruption by other activities
_________ is held constant for both constant and variable practice.
Variable practice scheduled in ______________ conferred small or no advantages when compared with constant practice conditions.
blocks of trials
Studies in which variable practice was scheduled in a _______________ showed rather large advantages compared to constant practice.
In regards to learning, _______________ [variation] is better!!
random is better than blocked!
In different tasks, ______________ is a schedule in which many trials on a single task are practiced consecutively; there is low contextual interference.
In different tasks, ________________ is a schedule in which practice trials on several different tasks are mixed, or interleaved, across the practice period; there is high contextual interference.
low contextual interference
high contextual interference
cognitive processing associating with producing a movement
where the order of the task presentation is mixed, or interleaved, across a practice period
the idea that frequent switching among tasks (i.e. in random practice) renders the tasks more distinct from each other and more meaningful, resulting in stronger memory representations; it is one explanation of the contextual-interference effect
Both the forgetting and elaboration hypotheses have to deal with __________ practice.
_______________ is the hypothesis that frequent task switching in random practice causes forgetting of the planning done on the previous trial, therefore leading to more next-trial planning and resulting in stronger memory; a hypothesis that explains the contextual interference effect.
2 alternatives to random and blocked practice:
hybrid schedules and practice contingencies
________________ led to overconfidence in the actual retention performance.
___________ has been shown to be better than blocked.
______________ is likely to be least effective when the task demands are sufficiently high that performers have a difficult time producing even a single trial of the behavior
Some researchers have found that moderate levels of random practice are beneficial for performance and learning
This schedule may be more sensitive to individual differences where the difficulty of the task and the decision to repeat the same task or switch to an easier or more difficult task depend on the performance success of the individual