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Terms to know for Ch 12

Triple Alliance

An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.

Triple Entente

An agreement between Great Britain, France and Russia NOT to attack each other

Franz Ferdinand

heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main "spark" for the World War I

Schlieffen Plan

Germany's military plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.


not supporting or favoring either side in a war or dispute

Central Powers

wartime alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire

Allied Powers

wartime alliance of Britian, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and others.

trench warfare

a form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from ditches dug in the battlefield.

Western Front

line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany and France/Britain


information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to persuade a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.

total war

war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in the battlefield


a German submarine that was the first employed in warfare, initially used during WWI

Czar Nicholas II

Russian monarch during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; overthrown in March 1917 by a revolution

Kaiser Wilhelm II

leader of Germany at the time of the First World War; pushed for an aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain

Woodrow Wilson

U.S. President, who led the US into WWI; proposed the 14 points, and attended the peace conference at Versailles.

Armenian Genocide

the ethnic "cleansing" in the Ottoman Empire of Christians that were believed to have assisted the Russian forces against the Central Powers

Galipoli Campaign

Britian and France's plan to get supplies to Russia to help them in the war effort; the Ottoman Turks defeated the British and the ANZACS


the planned annihilation of a racial, political, or cultural group

Zimmerman Note

Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilize against Germany, which had proven it was hostile

Balfour Declaration

British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for help from the Jews in Germany WWI


an agreement to stop fighting

Fourteen Points

plan promoted by Woodrow Wilson to achieve lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a League of Nations

Treaty of Versailles

peace agreement forced on Germany by France, Great Britain, Italy and the United States after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans and helped "fuel" the anger leading up to WWII

League of Nations

U.S. proposal: international organization to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join; proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.

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