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Med Micro Test 3 Questions

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In Griffith's experiments with streptococcus pneumonia, rough nonencapsulated streptococci were converted into smooth encapsulated streptococci in the presence of the heat-killed smooth encapsulated streptococci. What is the term that describes this process?
a. Transduction
b. Conjugation
c. Transformation
d. Cloning
c. Transformation
The Ames test is designed to
a. Determine the rate of DNA replication in various bacterial species
b. Detect the presence of a prophage in a cell
c. Detect if a cell is infected by a virus
d. Determine if a cell is resistant to an antibiotic
e. Detect chemicals with mutagenic potential
e. Detect chemicals with mutagenic potential
The transfer of DNA fragments from a dead cell to a live, competent recipient cell that results in a changed recipient cell is
a. Transduction
b. Conjugation
c. Transformation
d. Transmission
e. Mitosis
c. Transformation
Bacterial conjugation involves
a. Bacteriophage carrying donor DNA to the recipient cell
b. A donor cell with a plasmid that synthesizes a pilus
c. Naked DNA fragments from a lysed donor cell taken up by a recipient cell
d. New progeny cells with genes from two parent bacterial cells
e. None of the above
b. A donor cell with a plasmid that synthesizes a pilus
Which of the following occurs with generalized transduction?
a. Degradation of the host chromosome into randomly sized fragments
b. Packaging of any DNA fragment of the appropriate size
c. Transfer of any bacterial gene to the subsequent host
d. All of these occur with generalized transduction
d. All of these occur with generalized transduction
Restriction endonucleases in bacteria may have evolved in order to
a. Carry out natural genetic engineering
b. Protect the bacteria from infection by viruses
c. Use nucleic acids as a food (energy) source
d. All of the choices
b. Protect the bacteria from infection by viruses
In recombinant DNA technique, what enzyme is needed to seal the sticky ends of genes into plasmids or chromosomes
a. DNA polymerase
b. RNA polymerase
c. DNA helicase
d. DNA ligase
e. Primase
d. DNA ligase
Radioactively labeled, known, short stretches of DNA used to detect specific sequence of nucleotides in a mixture are known as
a. Genetic engineering
b. Biotechnology
c. Recombinant DNA
d. Gel electrophoresis
e. Gene probes
e. Gene probes
The three steps that take place in each cycle during PCR occur in which order?
a. DNA annealing, denaturation, and synthesis
b. DNA denaturation, annealing, and synthesis
c. DNA synthesis, denaturation, and annealing
d. None
b. DNA denaturation, annealing, and synthesis
Movement of charged molecules in an electrical field, which is used to separate nucleic acid fragments for recombinant DNA work, is called
a. Iontophoresis
b. Nucletophoresis
c. Electrophoresis
d. Plasmaphoresis
c. Electrophoresis
The sequencing and analysis of an organism's genetic information is called
a. Protein synthesis
b. Gene therapy
c. Genomics
d. Northern blotting
e. PCR
c. Genomics
Which of the following recombinant tools is NOT used in DNA fingerprinting
a. Restriction enzyme digestion
b. Gel electrophoresis
c. Reverse transcription
d. Gene probe hybridization
e. All of the above are used
c. Reverse transcription
Antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed
a. Antibiotics
b. Narrow-spectrum drugs
c. Semisynthetic drugs
d. Synthetic drugs
e. Broad spectrum drugs
e. Broad spectrum drugs
Penicillins and cephalosporins
a. Interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan
b. Block folic acid synthesis
c. Attach to the 30s ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
d. Damage cell membranes
e. Block peptides that cross-link glycan molecules
e. Block peptides that cross-link glycan molecules
Each of the following target prokaryotic ribosomes except
a. Streptomycin
b. Gentamycin
c. Polymyxins
d. Tetracycline
e. Erythromycin
C. polymyxins
Aminoglycosides
a. Interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan
b. Block folic acid synthesis
c. Attach to the 30s ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
d. Damage cell membrane
e. Block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
C. Attach to the 30s ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
Antimicrobials that are likely to produce the most toxic side effects to humans would belong to this group:
a. Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis
b. Inhibitors of protein synthesis
c. Disrupter of cell membrane structure
d. Inhibitors of DNA synthesis
c. Disrupter of cell membrane structure
Which of the following is the major reason why it has been difficult to treat viral infections with chemotherapeutic agents?
a. Viral metabolism resembles that of their hosts so there is no selective point of attack
b. Viruses use the metabolic machinery of their hosts, which limits many of the potential points of attack
c. Viruses have no metabolism and therefore offer no selective point of attack
d. Actually, viruses are not difficult to treat with chemotherapeutic agents.
B. Viruses use the metabolic machinery of their hosts, which limits many of the potential points of attack
The condition in the host that results from growing and multiplying of pathogenic organism is called:
a. An infection
b. An infectious disease
c. Virulence
d. Pathogenesis
e. All of the above
A. an infection
The final outcome of most host-parasite relationships depends on
a. The number of organisms present in or on the host
b. The virulence of the organism
c. The host's defenses
d. All of the choices
D. All of the choices