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US History UNIT E: [Ramsey BHS Spring 2019]
Terms in this set (49)
power struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States after World War II that did not involve warfare - a state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare.
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952) named for WWII General George Marshall
"Iron Curtain" speech, 1946
Term coined by British PM Winston Churchill referring to a political barrier that after WWII isolated the peoples of Soviet-dominated communist Eastern Europe from the US-dominated democratic capitalist Western Europe. "Iron Curtain" would last until many countries in Eastern Europe had democratic revolutions in the 1980s
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) (1949)
On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union, also referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization (BTO), established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could also include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland.
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
Mutually Assured Destruction
(MAD) if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
The first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957.
race to launch satellite into space between US and soviets
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
the communist doctrines of Mao Zedong as formerly practiced in China, having as a central idea permanent revolution and stressing the importance of the peasantry, of small-scale industry, and of agricultural collectivization.
Line that divided Korea - Soviet Union occupied the north and United States occupied the south, during the Cold War.
Red Scare 2
During the Cold War (late 1940's-50's) Americans feared the rise of communism and McCarthyism etc.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
African American actor and singer who promoted African American rights and left-wing causes
ten witnesses from the film industry who refused to cooperate with the HUAC's investigation of Communist influence in Hollywood
Cuba and Castro
Fulgencio Batista - U.S. supported dictator; supported U.S. business interests; Fidel Castro marched into Havana and established a new government; Castro began accepting assistance from the Soviet Union; U.S. cut back the quota by which Cuba could export sugar to America at a favored price.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
It is a typical evening in a typical suburban community. At the residence of physician Bill Stockton, he enjoys a birthday party being thrown for him by his wife Grace and their son Paul. Also at the party are Jerry Harlowe, Bill's brother-in-law; Frank Henderson and Marty Weiss, Bill and Jerry's former roommates; and the wives and children of Jerry, Frank, and Marty. Bill is well known and liked by this gathering; he attended the State University with Marty, Frank, and Jerry. Moreover, Bill has repeatedly administered to the health and well-being of each one of said guests and/or delivered their children. Everyone is especially friendly and jovial, even when mention is made of Bill's late-night work on a fallout shelter which he has built in his basement. Suddenly, a Civil Defense (CONELRAD) announcement overheard by young Paul is made that unidentified objects have been detected heading for the United States. In these times, everybody knows what that means: nuclear attack.
As panic ensues, the doctor locks himself and his family into his shelter. The same gathering of friends becomes hysterical and now wants to occupy the shelter. All of the previous cordiality is now replaced with soaring desperation; pent-up hostility, searing racism, nativism, and other suppressed emotions boil to the surface. Stockton offers his basement to the guests, but the shelter itself has sufficient air, provisions, and space for only three people (the Stocktons themselves). The once-friendly neighbors do not accept this; they break down the shelter door with an improvised battering ram. Just then, a final Civil Defense broadcast announces that the objects have been identified as harmless satellites and that no danger is present. The neighbors apologize for their behavior; yet Stockton wonders if they have destroyed each other without a bomb.
30 million war babies were born between 1942 and 1950.
CIA and Cuba
The Cuban Project, also known as Operation Mongoose, was a covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that was commissioned in March 1960 during the final year of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration. On November 30, 1961, covert operations against Fidel Castro's government in Cuba were officially authorized by President Kennedy and after being given the name Operation Mongoose at a prior White House meeting on November 4, 1961. The operation was led by United States Air Force General Edward Lansdale and went into effect after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion.
Operation Mongoose was a secret program against Cuba aimed at removing the Communists from power, which was a prime focus of the Kennedy administration. A document from the United States Department of State confirms that the project aimed to "help Cuba overthrow the Communist regime," including its leader Fidel Castro, and it aimed "for a revolt which can take place in Cuba by October 1962." US policymakers also wanted to see "a new government with which the United States can live in peace."
The movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions(Sunbelt) of the United States.
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
a material sign that informs others of a person's specific status
A business established or operated under an authorization to sell or distribute a company's goods or services in a particular area
the strategy of deliberately designing products to fail in order to shorten the time between purchases
someone in a professional or clerical job who usually earns a salary
Someone who performs manual labor, often in a manufacturing job, and who earns an hourly wage.
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
Interstate Highway Act
1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history
Poverty line in the US
a measure of scarcity determined by figuring the cost of a minimal food budget and multiplying it by three
Author who wrote The Other American. He alerted those in the mainstream to what he saw in the run-down and hidden communities of the country.
a social and artistic movement of the 1950's stressing unrestrained literary self expression and nonconformity with the mainstream culture
United States writer who was a leading figure of the beat generation (1922-1969) wrote On The Road
American poet famous for his poem "Howl" (1956), in which he celebrates fellow members of the Beat Generation and critiques the destruction forces of materialism and the conformity of the US
Rock and Roll
music that grew out of rhythm and blues and that became popular in the 1950s
1950s; a symbol of the rock-and-roll movement of the 50s when teenagers began to form their own subculture, dismaying to conservative parents; created a youth culture that ridiculed phony and pretentious middle-class Americans, celebrated uninhibited sexuality and spontaneity; foreshadowed the coming counterculture of the 1960s
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
Military Integration (Ex. Order 9981)
African Americans served in segregated units in the military during WW2 but after, the units of military are not segregated. Women also served in the war.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Little Rock Nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
Equal Rights Amendment
a proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution outlawing discrimination based on sex
Know the film 'Hidden Figures'
PIn 1961, mathematician Katherine Goble works as a human computer in the gender and racially segregated division West Area Computers of the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, alongside her colleagues, aspiring engineer Mary Jackson and their unofficial acting-supervisor Dorothy Vaughan.
Following the successful Soviet launch of Yuri Gagarin, pressure to send American astronauts into space increases. Supervisor Vivian Mitchell assigns Katherine to assist Al Harrison's Space Task Group, given her skills in analytic geometry. She becomes the first black woman on the team. Katherine's new colleagues are initially dismissive and demeaning, especially head engineer Paul Stafford.
Mary is assigned to the space capsule heat shield team where she immediately identifies a design flaw. Meanwhile, Mitchell informs Dorothy that she will not be promoted, as there are no plans to assign a "permanent supervisor for the colored group".
Mary receives encouragement from her team leader, a Polish-Jewish Holocaust survivor, to apply for an official NASA engineer position. When she submits her application she is told by Mitchell that despite her mathematics and physical science degree she will never be an engineer at NASA. She would need additional certification courses but these are offered only at the all-white nearby Hampton High School. Despite her husband's opposition Mary decides to file a petition for permission to attend class at Hampton High School.
Katherine meets National Guard Lt. Col. Jim Johnson at a barbecue, but she is disappointed when he voices skepticism about women's mathematical abilities. He later apologizes, and begins spending time with Katherine and her three daughters.
When Harrison invites his subordinates to solve a complex mathematical equation, Katherine develops the solution, leaving him impressed. The Mercury 7 astronauts visit Langley and astronaut John Glenn is cordial to the West Area Computers.
Harrison is enraged when he finds out that Katherine is forced to walk a half-mile (800 meters) to another building to use the colored people's bathroom. Harrison abolishes bathroom segregation, knocking down the "Colored Bathroom" sign. Harrison allows Katherine to be included in their meetings, in which she creates an equation within that meeting to guide the space capsule during re-entry. Despite this, Katherine is forced to remove her name from the reports, which are credited solely to Stafford. Stafford said that computers cannot author such things. Meanwhile, Mary pleads her case in court and wins over the local judge by appealing to his sense of history and being on the right side of it. She is granted legal authorization to attend the segregated all white school to obtain her engineering degree, although only the night classes.
Dorothy learns of the impending installation of an IBM 7090 electronic computer that could replace human computers. She visits the computer room to learn about it, and successfully starts the machine. Later, she visits a public library, where the librarian scolds her for visiting the whites-only section, to borrow a book about Fortran. She steals the book and begins studying on her own. After teaching herself programming and training her West Area co-workers, she is officially promoted to supervise the Programming Department, bringing 30 of her co-workers with her. Mitchell eventually addresses Dorothy as "Mrs. Vaughan," indicating her new-found respect.
As the final arrangements for John Glenn's launch are made, Katherine is reassigned back to West Area Computers. Harrison told her that they no longer need computers in their department and it's beyond his decision. As a wedding and farewell gift from her colleagues (Katherine is now married to Jim Johnson), Katherine is given a pearl necklace, the only jewelry allowed under the dress code.
The day of the launch, discrepancies arise in the IBM 7090 calculations for the capsule's landing coordinates, and Astronaut Glenn requests that Katherine be called in to check them. She quickly does so, only to have the door slammed in her face after delivering the results to the control room. However, Harrison gives her a security pass so they can relay the results to Glenn together. After a successful launch and orbit, the space capsule has a heat shield problem. Mission control decides to land it after three orbits instead of seven. Katherine suggests that they leave the retro-rocket attached to the heat shield for reentry. The instructions prove correct, and Friendship 7 successfully lands.
Following the mission, the mathematicians are laid off and ultimately replaced by electronic computers. Katherine is reassigned to the Analysis and Computation Division, Dorothy continues to supervise the Programming Department, and Mary obtains her engineering degree and gains employment at NASA as an engineer. At the end of the film, we see Stafford, showing a change of heart, bringing Katherine a cup of coffee and accepting that her name is included on the report.
An epilogue reveals that Katherine calculated the trajectories for the Apollo 11 and Space Shuttle missions. In 2015 she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The following year, NASA dedicated the Langley Research Center's Katherine G. Johnson Computational Building in her honor.
CIA in Iran
Iran's PM, Mohammed Mossadegh placed formerly private oil industries (mostly owned by GB) under Iranian control, so the Brits stopped buying Iranian oil, which made the U.S. fear that Iran would ask the SU for help; the CIA gave millions of dollars to anti-Mossadegh supporters, and helped the Shah family return to power, which turned over control of Iranian oil fields to Western companies
Known as The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état , was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax"), and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.
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