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Paleo Final Exam
Terms in this set (70)
What are chordates?
-have notochord and dorsal, hollow nerve cord
-bilateral animals that belong to Deuterostomia
-includes all vertebrates and 2 invertebrates, lancelets and tunicates
! first chordate: Pixaia !
Class Agnatha description and extant examples
! extant = sea lamprey !
What are ostracoderms and when did they go extinct
-extinct: CAMBRIAN TO DEVONIAN
-armored, used gills for respiration only
-no paired fins = poor swimmers
-extinct due to placoderms
-1.8 meters long
! extinct due to placoderms !
Class Placodermi description and geologic range
-have jaws and paired fins
! SILURIAN TO PERMIAN !
-ten meters long
Class Acanthodii description, geologic range, and common name
-jaws and cartilaginous skeletons
-common name: spiny shark, but class does not include sharks
! SILURIAN TO PERMIAN !
Class Chondrichthyes description and geologist range
-denticles: toothlike scales
-evolved from placoderms
! includes sharks, sting rays, and skates
What is the largest extant fish
Class Osteichthyes - description and geologic range
! SILURIAN TO RECENT !
How are ray-finned fish different from the lobe-finned fish?
ray finned fish: small bony fins
lobed finned fish: bigger bones, ulna, radius, muscle
Which type of fish are the most common today? Ray-finned or lobed finned fish?
Bony, ray-finned fish
Example of a fossil ray-finned fish: Cranky Fish, also known as Xiphanctinus
-largest bony, ray finned fish
! CRETACEOUS !
Example of lobed finned fish: Coelacanth
-fins have bones and muscles
-live on the bottom of ocean floor
Amphibians have evolved from which type of fish?
-lobe finned fish
Evidence of amphibian evolution
1. Osteolepiforms have nostrils that lead to opening in the roof of mouth that allows air to pass into mouth and then to paired swim bladders
2. Lungfish can crawl over land from one body of water to the next
3. The fins have bones like those found in limbs
What are tetrapods
- 4 limbs, feet with digits
-neck that allowed separate movement of the head
-fusion of the pelvic girdle to the backbone
-absence of gills
-ears for detecting airborne sounds
Why is Tiktaalik important?
-transition between fish and amphibian
What are the fish characters of Tiktaalik and what are the tetrapods characters?
-scales, fins, gills and lungs
-neck, ribs, fin skeleton, flat skull with eyes on top
Example of amphibians: Ichthyostega
-looks like an alligator-whale thing
Example of amphibians: Acanthostega
-looks like a long alligator
What are amniotes and why are they important?
-eggs allow them to reproduce away from water and move to dry land
-one lineage became mammals, and the other became reptiles and birds
Diapsids vs. Synapsids vs. Anapsids
-Synapsids: one hole behind the eye socket; horse, kangaroo
-Diapsids: two holes behind the eye socket; alligator
Anapsids: no openings behind the eye
What are reptiles
-scales with waterproof barrier for keratin and scutes, bony plates
-lay eggs on land
-ectothermic, absorb heat
-arose from reptiles, 315 mya
-first major group in Carboniferous period
-stocky, quadrupedal herbivores
-box-like shell fused to vertebrae, clavicles, and ribs
-adapted to deserts, ponds, and rivers
-LATE TRIASSIC TO PRESENT
What is the largest fossil turtle
Archelon: Ruler Turtle
-largest genus of turtles
-found in USA
-LATE TRIASSIC TO EARLY JURASSIC
Why are Triassic Crocodiles important?
-belonged to Archosaur lineage
Which is the largest Crocodile that ever lived?
Pterosaurs - what are they?
-babies were independent immediately after birth
-wing development complete with full mobility
Mesosaurs vs. Ichthyosaurs vs. Plesiosaurs
Ichthyosaurs, fish lizard:
-appeared in Triassic, diverse in Jurassic, extinct in Cretaceous
-preserved with skin and blubber
-long, snake like necks; tiny heads, and wide bodies
What types of animals were Plesiosaurs and Ichthyosaurs?
Ichthyosaurs: fish lizard
Plesiosaurs: turtle, with snake or giraffe-like neck
Which are the two Plesiosaurs groups and what is the difference between them
- snake-like necks
-tiny heads with wide bodies
-large heads with SHORT neck
-strong jaws with aggressive temper
What are tuataras and where are they found today?
What are the squamates?
What are the differences between snakes and lizards
-teeth, not fangs
-legless, some venomous
Largest snake ever lived
Titanoboa: the forty foot snake
What are the mammal-like reptiles
-regulated their temperature
-different type of teeth
-successful until end of Permian
What are the 2 groups of mammal-like reptiles
-earliest mammal-like reptile
-sprawling position with sail on back
-carniverous and herbivorous
-looks like a giant naked mole rat
-PERMIAN TO TRIASSIC
What are the differences between Dimetrodon and Edaphosaurus?
-2 measures of teeth
-top predator of PERMIAN period
-Sail bones were connected by highly vascularized skin
-small peg-like teeth
-LATE CARBONIFEROUS TO EARLY PERMIAN
What is the difference between mammals and reptiles?
-single bone mandible with articulation between dentary bone and squamosal
-sound is conducted between 3 bones
-dentition is heterodont
-multiple bone mandible with articulation between lower jaw and cranium
-sound between single bone
-dentition is homodont
What are the skeletal differences between dinosaurs and reptiles?
-ankles able to twist, different toe lengths, ball and socket joints
-large cavity in front of the eyes and a small one on lower jaw
When did the dinosaur group arose
-During Triassic, two hundred and fifty years ago
Who were the ancestors of dinosaurs
During what period did dinosaurs become the most diverse?
What are the two groups of dinosaurs and how do we distinguish them?
-herbivores, moved in herds
-no teeth in front of mouth
-bipedal, hallow bones
-3 fingers and toes on each hand and feet
Which group of dinosaur was "bird hipped" and which was "lizard-hipped"?
In how many suborders are the ornithichian dinosaurs divided?
Examples of Ornithuchian dinosaurs: Ankylosaurus - know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
-bony plates on back, head, and sides
Examples of Ornithuchian dinosaurs: Gastonia - know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
-armor with rows of spines
-large shoulder spines
-blades running down each side of its tail
Examples of Ornithuchian dinosaurs: Stegosaurus - know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
-bony plates on back that absorb heat
Examples of Ornithuchian dinosaurs: Triceratops - know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
-3 horned face
-large bony frill over neck
Examples of Ornithuchian dinosaurs: Stegoceras- know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
-thick bones on skull for butting contests for dominance and mates
Examples of Ornithuchian dinosaurs: Parasaurolophus - know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
-duck billed dinosaurs
-diverse in creataceous
-bipedal, also used on all 4s
-crest on skulls, used for sound amplification
Examples of Ornithuchian dinosaurs: Iguanodon - know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
-2 and 4 legs
What are the two saurischian dinosaur groups and how are they separated?
Theropods examples: Spinosaurus - know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
-spine lizard with one large spine on back
Theropods examples: T-Rex - know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
Theropods examples: Velociraptor - know how to distinguish between them, key characters.
-Tall with large legs and tiny arms
-young caught prey, while adults killed prey
Sauropods example: Sauroposeidon - key characters.
-tallest of all dinosaurs, neck could lift 66 feet tall
-western North America
Were dinosaurs warm-blooded or cold-blooded? How do you know?
Most are warm blooded because:
1. have more blood vessels in bones
2. less growth rings in bones
3. larger brain case
4. 4-chambered heart
5. discovery of true feathers, presence of proto-feathers on T-Rex
Which group of dinosaurs gave birth to birds?
-presence of feathers
-long forelimbs with claws
-toothed, theropod-type skull
-retractable middle claw on feet
Difference in wing construction between pterosaur, bird, and bat.
Development of feathers and flight.
-microraptor: small thief
-archaeopteryx: ancient wing
Why is Archaeopteryx important?
it was "the first bird", flew like a pheasant
-first dinosaur tail found in amber
Strange feathered dinosaurs - Epidexipteryx, Gigantoraptor, and Nothronychus - know how to distinguish between them.
-decorated tail, small bird
-tall, 2 tons
-2 together could scare away predators from eggs
-long, sloth like claws
How did the jaw fish evolve
-skeletal rods changed into jaw
! EARLY SILURIAN !
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