Aice English A level terms
Terms in this set (66)
Refers to the way people speak (accent). How people end up speaking more and more like each other during conversation (sometimes to show gratitude/ admiration)
When we make our language more different from someone to show individuality or dislike
When listener utters minimal responses such as "mmm" and "yeah" usually to support conversation
A grammatically simplified form of a language formed out of one or many existing languages , used for communication between people with different languages. (Lingua Franca )
Ex : English pidgin's = Chinese pidgin English , Hawaiian Pidgin English
A fully developed - functional language created from mixture of different languages, and acquired by children as native language. Pidgin's are never fully functional and are never a person's native language.
(Pidgin's usually develop into creoles)
Ex: Gullah - English variety spoken by Africans
Change where words/expressions carry unwanted connotations over time
Ex: "blessed / innocent" means someone who lacks sense (frivolous)
Elevation of a words meaning, going from a negative to a positive one (opposite of pejoration)
Ex: "Nice" went from foolish/silly - kind
Semantic widening meaning of a word. This process is called "generalization." (Ex: Business - A word that meant "busy or anxious," and now means "a corporation or occupation.")
the meaning of a word becomes less general or inclusive than its earlier meaning. (Ex: starve means 'to die of hunger', before meant just to die in general)
Words and phrases that are more informal and common in speech than written language ( "aight" and " totes")
the act of creating a new word or phrase that other people begin to use. "Blog" is a word of recent coinage
Millennial speak, the act of abbreviating words to create a certain tone
special words or expressions that are used by a group/profession (doctors, lawyers, dentists) and are difficult for others to understand. (Ex: medical jargon such as nasal, congestions, anti-depressants)
Choice of words, style, and grammar. Usually shows a person's social status (degrees of formality)
Ex: formal register during interview
General feeling / attitude towards subject being expressed in piece. (Refers to emotion)
Ex: enthusiastic / intimate / humorous tone
Distinctive pronunciation of language associated with a specific nation or social class
(Australian English accent)
A particular form of language associated with a specific region or social group
Ex : (British English in U.K)
Dialect of a certain social class ( Ex: London's cockney accent mainly spoken by lower/ working class)
Speech patterns/habits specific to an individual. (Ex: using "rad" as cool is part of your idiolect)
Alternating between multiple languages or varieties of language in a conversation (Ex: Spanglish)
A set of words grouped semantically (by meaning) that refers to a certain subject. (Ex: "heart", "flower", "love", "music", "passion" the semantic field would most likely be considered 'love'.)
Rising or lowering of ones voice during conversation (Rising intonation for emphasis)
Labov: Summarize (Martha's vineyard)
On Martha's Vineyard a small group of fishermen began to exaggerate a tendency already existing in their speech. They did this seemingly subconsciously, in order to establish themselves as an independent social group with superior status to the despised summer visitors. . As more and more people came to speak in the same way, the innovation gradually became the norm for those living on the island
(New York dept. stores
Labov studied the pronunciation of the final |r| in words (carried prestige) and found that Sales associates in Saks used it most, those from Klein's used it least and those from Macy's showed the greatest upward shift when they were asked to repeat.
The results from the department store study highlight the main themes of the research. Frequency of use of the prestige variable final or preconsonantal (r) varied with level of formality and social class.
Trudgill: (Norwich study)
Trudgill's study discovered the following in Norwich
1. In all social classes, the more careful the speech, the more likely people were to say walking rather than walkin'.
2. The proportion of walkin' type forms was higher in lower social classes.
3. The nonstandard -in' forms occurred much more often in men's speech than in women's, and this was true for all social classes.
4. When women were questioned about what they thought they were saying, they tended to say they used the standard -ing forms more often than they really did.
5. When men were
questioned about what they thought they were saying, they tended to say they used the nonstandard -in' forms more often than they really did.
Mcwhorter (texting/language change )
So if texting is not exactly writing, what is it? McWhorter suggests the descriptive (albeit awkward) "fingered speech." , McWhorter reveals that texting represents an entirely new way of writing and communicating, and argues that it's good for our brains.
A word / common language used by
language steamroller' is the massive replacement of a region's languages by languages from the outside. (English in India taking over Hindi literature)
three Concentric Circles of the language: The Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. The Inner Circle refers to English as it originally took shape and was spread.
Inner circle are native speakers (US,UK,Canada)
Outer circle are non native speakers, possibly colonized by English speaking country ( India, Singapore, Malaysia)
Expanding circle speakers are places where English is learned as a foreign/ second language ( China, Japan, Poland)
Modiano's Model (spread of English)
The center is made up of those who are proficient in international English under inter cultural context (no strong accent / dialect) the next circle is made up of has proficiency in English as a first or second language, rather than English as an international language. Next circle is English learners and last is those who don't know English.
a word or a part of a word that has a grammatical purpose but often has little or no meaning: In the sentence "I tidied up the room"
A diphthong is a sound made by combining two vowels, specifically when it starts as one vowel sound and goes to another, like the oy sound in oil.
Philipson and linguistic imperialism
argued that it was in the interests of the UK and the USA to have English spread, and that the policies reflected this. He further adds that English and other ENL countries are unfairly benefitting today because of English's position as a global lingua franca.
Thiong'o and his rejection of English
Writing in English suggests the betrayal of mother tongue and leads to reduction of African culture within spoken / written language
McCrum's stance of english Lang.
Argues that the latest achievement of English is to have transcended the legacy of empire. Today it's so globally spread it truly belongs to the world
Crystal's thoughts on English Lang.
Feels English has spread to a lingua Franca and this has present and future effects on English as well as other languages
Summarize rise of english
English has risen through colonization and dominance in the global economy influenced other countries to also learn english
Singlish is seen as a variety of English by Singapore people but seen as a harmful variety by the prime minister of Singapore who prefers standard English
Languages that are in danger of becoming extinct due to lack of speakers / learnings
Languages that no longer exist because there is no speakers/ written rules/ language so it dies
Overview of Wales' effort to preserve Welsh
Wales reintroduces welsh into public schools as educational language to try and preserve welsh and its culture instead of adopting English
Morphology and morphemes
the study of the forms of words. Morphemes are the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language.
Phonology and phonemes
the branch of linguistics that deals with systems of sounds (including or excluding phonetics), especially in a particular language. An example is the English phoneme /k/, which occurs in words such as cat, kit, scat, skit.
is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, specifically word order and punctuation. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes.
the branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning. For example, "destination" and "last stop" technically mean the same thing, but students of semantics analyze their subtle shades of meaning.
the branch of linguistics dealing with language in use and the contexts in which it is used.
the vocabulary of a language, as distinct from its grammar; the total stock of words and idiomatic combinations of them in a language; lexicon.
Stage of rapid vocabulary acquisition and syntax. Many nouns and simple verbs are learned between the age 1-2
When children's language broadens and they start to use two words together ( like "more milk" and "daddy juice" )
From age 2-3, children learn to express their meaning using their limited vocab which can lead to over/underextension
Language development develops rapidly as well as cognitive/ social development. ( connecting words with emotion/ family and distinguishing hypernyms and hyponyms )
change in the form of a word (typically the ending) to express a grammatical function or attribute such as tense, mood, person,
Process by young children to extend meaning of a word ("daddy" applied to all men )
The use of a word in a limited way that doesn't acknowledge its full meaning. ( word "ball" to describe their ball but not other balls )
Children will often provide commentary on whatever they are doing as they are doing it ( "now time for bed. Time to go to bed. Mummy said bed. Night night. ")
Words for categories of things ( Ex : animals , vegetables, etc) that fall into hyponyms. ( Ex : cat hamster (animals) carrot, cabbage (veg) )
Berko Wug test
Test that evaluates young children's understanding of English grammar rules (wugs, wuggets)
Halliday's seven funct. of Lang.
Instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, representational, heuristic, imaginative
Process that changes behavior or modified due to the repeated presence of a stimulus (skinner = kids learn language through imitation / condition from positive reinforcement
Innate skill within children that allows them to develop language skills. And states that this device enables children to be receptive to language around them.
Chomskys LAD's limitations were addressed with Bruners LASS and states that theory doesn't take into account interaction of the child with others, no evidence of a grammar structure/ device in brain, and doesn't take the child's social world into account.
Piaget's stages of development
Concrete op. stage
Formal op. stage
Patricia Kuhn TED talk
Kuhl tells the TED audience that I-LABS research is embarking on a "grand and golden age" of discoveries about early brain development.
"We're going to be able to see the child's brain as they experience an emotion, as they learn to speak and read, as they solve a math problem, as they have an idea," Kuhl said during her TED talk.
Lennenberg's Critical period
Stated that the LAD must be activated during the critical period for native language aquisition to occur
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