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Western Civ ISM's Unit Test
Terms in this set (47)
What is capitalism
An economic system in which most means of production are privately owned, and goods, services, and income are distributed through markets
What is wealth in capitalism?
Labor, capacity to work
NOT MONEY $$$
According to capitalists, is self-interest good or bad?
Good- Motive for labor is self interest. Allowing people to pursue self-interest brings economic progress
Means of production
The factors within a capitalist system that create goods for consumer purchase, thereby sustaining an industrialized society such as materials and equipment
How do capitalists decide which items (and how many of those items) to produce?
Supply and demand
According to capitalists, what is the role of the educational system in capitalism?
Education is important- a way to get ahead
According to capitalists, is competition good or bad?
Free markets → Competition → Prices down and quality improves
According to capitalists, are social classes good or bad?
Good- Capitalism creates classes (owners=haves, workers = have nots)
Drawbacks of capitalism
- encourages risk taking (boom or bust)
-emphasis on results often leads governmental leaders to enact laws that have short-term economic benefits
-the playing field is really not level - even from the beginning
-emphasis on profit means that other valuable & intangible benefits are not as valued
-sometimes the entire economy takes a hit & a huge percentage of the people suffer (ex: Great Depression)
-the need to keep selling products leads to planned obsolescence (making products that are designed to wear out / become out of date) = throwaway culture
A movement advocating the political, social, and educational equality of women with men
Goals of Feminist Movement
Access to employement, education, child care, contraception, abortion, equality in the workplace, etc...
Depicted realities of 1800s life (often harsh)
Goals and Characteristics of Realism
An attempt to represent the world as it was, without the sentiment associated with romanticism
Rejected Realism in favor of creativity, emotion, and imagination
Characteristics and Goals of Romanticism
Power of Nature- common idea and theme
Reaction to the neoclassical writers of the Enlightenment
An effort to depict the world in a way that the camera could not, by recreating the sensation of viewing a scene
Goal of Impressionism
present the immediate sensation ("impression") through color and light
hands off approach; key part of a free market
the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
What are the 3 types of imperial control?
Colony: A territory ruled directly by a foreign country
Protectorate:A territory that has its own government but has its policies guided by a foreign country
Sphere of Influence: A region of a country in which a foreign country holds exclusive investment or trading rights
What were the 3 key factors that caused the rise of Imperialism in the 19th century?
#2: The Industrial Revolution
#3: Feelings of Racial and Cultural Superiority
Why did the Industrial Revolution lead to Imperialism
Nations faced a huge demand for raw materials and also needed expanded markets for their manufactured goods
Who controls production in a socialist society?
Workers own, manage and control production. The government may also control production
Socialists concentrate on a program that includes:
Reorganization and regulation of the economy
End to inequality based on birth
Maintenance of full employement
Opportunities for the underprivileged
Re-planning and rebuilding of cities and slums
Social securtiy for the sick, unemployed, aged
Services should be accessible
Elimination of discrimination
What is democratic socialism?
The result of industrial capitalism
What is the single most important element in socialist thought and policy?
The link between democracy and socialism
In a Utopian socialist society work should suit and please the individual, and the products of work should be shared equally
If achieved, poverty, crime and other evils would disappear
What did Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto say?
History advances through conflict, class division is inevitable and the ruling class controls production
No private property = no class distinctions
What were the legacies of Industrialism?
Expanded job opportunities beyond farming
Raw materials consumed in greater quantities
Broadened trade between countries and continents
Consumerism and materialism increased
New materials became available to people all over the globe
Women found more opportunities to work outside the home
Socialism was a radical solution to
end poverty and injustice
What is socialism?
Under socialism the people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production, the farms, factories, railways and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods
marx's term for the working class (have-nots)
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Goal of nationalism
Goal was (and is) the creation of independent states based upon nationality
All about making society more open
Socialism vs Communism
Communists seeks to bring the end of capitalism by a single act of revolution where socialists adhere to strict constitutional procedure and seek power through ballots not bullets
Dictatorship where the state is above the individual and controls the economy and most aspects of life
Economically and politically totalitarian in nature
Characteristics of a fascist society
government is very efficient
there is censorship
use of secret police
nationalistic and militaristic
can be racist
"fascism on steroids"
extreme nationalism + extreme racism + national expansion
Very strict rules about who can and cannot own property and businesses
Marx's steps of a revolution
capitalists will become rich off the workers --> workers will violently revolt and take control of the government --> class system will be destroyed and a classless society will emerge
A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs
According to Marx's Communist Manifesto why would a classless society emerge
When workers take over the government, the working class (proletariat) would allow everyone to share in the wealth
Who opposed nationalism?
Leaders of multinational empires (like Russia and Austria-Hungary)
the idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" of its citizens
Where Karl Marx predicted a struggle between social classes that would lead to a classless society where all means of production would be owned by the community
Main goal of capitalism
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