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Exam Six- Drugs only
Terms in this set (50)
Natural opiate alkaloid (Schedule II) obtained from opium
Similar to morphine in terms of it pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties.
Note: 10% is metabolized to morphine.
Ceiling effect - Only agonist
More commonly used as an antitussive drug
GI disturbance- Give with food to minimize.
No longer used in pediatric patients
Risk for deaths due to CYP 450 metabolism issues
Synthetic opioid (Schedule II) - Treats moderate to severe pain
Parenteral injections, transdermal patches (Duragesic), buccal lozenges (Fentora), and buccal lozenges on a stick (Actiq). Highly effective in treatment cancer pain. Do not use for opioid naive patients.
Very potent opioid analgesic; Schedule II drug. One milligram of IV or IM is equal to 7 mg of morphine.
Dolophine (Methadone Hydrochloride)
Synthetic opioid analgesic (Schedule II)
Opioid of choice - Detoxification treatment of opioid addicts
Used to treat chronic (e.g., neuropathic) and cancer-related pain
Prolonged half-life of the drug: Cause of unintentional overdoses and deaths
Naturally occurring alkaloid derived from the opium poppy
Prototype opioid drug; Schedule II controlled substance
Indication: Severe pain
High abuse potential
Oral, injectable (PCA), and rectal dosage forms; also extended-release forms
Never crush extended-release morphine (MS Contin).
Analgesic drug - Comparable analgesic effect to morphine (Schedule II).
Commonly combined in tablet form with acetaminophen (Percocet) and with aspirin (Percodan).
Immediate release (Oxy IR) and sustained-release formulas (OxyContin).
Pure opioid antagonist
Drug of choice for the complete or partial reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression.
Indication: Suspected acute opioid overdose - Drug Overdose
Analgesic and antipyretic effects
No antiinflammatory effects
Available over the counter (OTC) and in combination products with opioids.
Mechanism of Action
Similar to salicylates
Blocks pain impulses peripherally by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis
Mild to moderate pain
Alternative for those who cannot take aspirin products
Ultram (tramadol hydrochloride)
Centrally acting analgesic with a dual mechanism of action
Weak bond with opioid receptors and inhibits the reuptake of both norepinephrine and serotonin.
Treatment of moderate to moderately severe pain (not classified as an opioid).
Interactions (Result in Seizures): Tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MOIs), neuroleptics
Related to the marigold family
Used to treat migraine headaches, menstrual cramps, inflammation, and fever
May cause GI distress, altered taste, muscle stiffness
May interact with aspirin and other NSAIDs, as well as anticoagulants
Intravenous administration use for both general anesthesia and moderate sedation
Rapid onset of action
Low incidence of reduction of cardiovascular, respiratory, and bowel function
Adverse effects: disturbing psychomimetic effects, including hallucinations
Only inhaled gas currently used as a general anesthetic
Weakest of the general anesthetic drugs
Used primarily for dental procedures or as a supplement to other, more potent anesthetics
Parenteral general anesthetic
Used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
Sedation for mechanical ventilation in ICU settings
Lower doses: Sedative-hypnotic for moderate sedation
Monitor triglycerides if administered with total parenteral nutrition
Inhaled volatile anesthetics - widely used.
Rapid onset and rapid elimination
Facilitates induction of an unconscious state, especially in pediatric patients
Works similarly to neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), causing depolarization
Metabolized slower than ACh, so as long as succinylcholine is present, repolarization cannot occur.
Result: flaccid muscle paralysis
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