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SNA - California Review Management article and powerpoint
Terms in this set (48)
can be any entity, people, organizations, families, groups, teams, computers. Basically anything you can possibly think of, that can be annotated. But it has to be some sort of identifiable entity.
people, organizations, families, groups, teams.
aggregate dyads to the node, measure node's position in the network.
can be any sort of a relationship. interactions, flows, similarities, and social relationships.
most interested in where the money is flowing, because the money is going to flow to the most powerful people in the organization. money flows get you the convictions.
can be particularly helpful in moving a community from an ad hoc, informal group to a value-pro- ducing network by focusing on five points:
▪ improving information flow and knowledge-reuse;
▪ developing an ability to sense and respond to key problems or
▪ driving planned and emergent innovation;
▪ nurturing value-creating interactions; and
▪ engaging employees through community efforts.
critical to knowledge transfer and to the diffusion of innovation and ideas.
must often solve complex, ill-defined problems with short time horizons. require defining the relevant dimensions of a problem, crafting a solution that is feasible and appropriate for the situation, and conniving others of the correctness of a proposed course of action.
communities of practice
many executives have begun to identify and support networks of employees doing similar work to better leverage expertise and best practices throughout their enterprises. defined as groups of people who share a passion for something that they know how to do, and who interact regularly in order to learn how to do it better. they are almost always voluntary groups with no reporting structures or accountabilities.
2 features of COP's that made them amenable to assessment and improvement with network analysis
1. leaders have no direct control over employees
2. they are usually composed of people who are geographically dispersed.
social network analysis (SNA)
allows executives to visualize the myriad relationships either facilitating or impeding community effectiveness.
leaders of organizations should use such tools to identify opportunities for value, innovation, and efficiency.
often have to work through the network to find the members of a potential or existing community.
in a full time position, works to connect community members in need of help with those who have the requisite knowledge and expertise.
local knowledge champion
in a part time role demanding less than ten percent of the individual's time, resides in the immediate information network of the knowledge broker and serves to extend the broker's reach throughout the community.
transfer of knowledge
made clear that important business conversations occur across geographies as well as across generations, and without imposing an unnecessary collaborative burden on all employees.
strength of SNA
the __ of __ as an analytic tool, is that it helps those interested in forming vibrant communities to be much more targeted and effective in the interventions they employ to improve collaboration.
allows a community leader to target points where connectivity needs to be decreased as well as increased. can also help create new communities, target interventions and track improvement in collaborations within the community as well as business objectives.
5 levers for increasing return on community investments
1. improving information flow and knowledge reuse
2. developing a sense and respond capability to capitalize on new opportunities
3. driving planned and emergent innovation
4. nurturing value creating interactions
5. ensuring employee engagement through communities of practice
objectives for community of practice programs
1. encourage information flow
2. knowledge reuse
3. learning amongst employees
and personality or interests of those involved contrains informational flow and learning networks these social forces create silos and a wide dispersion of connectivity that undermine knowledge transfer and the performance benefits of communities.
1. central connectors
3. peripheral players
4. fragmentation points
5. external connectivity
have the most direct connections in a network and can have a substantial impact on a community. they play critical roles in the communities' effectiveness.
leaders who are important in holding the entire community together. they tend to integrate important sub-groups in a network in ways that central people or those in formal positions of authority sometimes do not. they reside on the shortest path between many others in the network, and they are ideal employees to work through when trying to quickly diffuse certain kinds of information, they are the most efficient path to promoting overall community connectivity.
these people already have credibility and legitimacy in the eyes of their peers, and are likely to be sought out and listened to.
loosely connected or isolated members that often represent under-utilized resources of a community as their skills, expertise, and unique perspectives are not leveraged effectively. (when brought into the community, they provide fresh ideas and perspectives)
the points that might affect a community's ability to promote innovation and knowledge transfer throughout an organization. density tables and cliques can identify these points of concern.
understand how the entire network is learning and/or impacting the work of others. this perspective can be critical to promoting points of connectivity that need to be established with external stakeholders.
Network Objective: drive planned and emergent innovation
establish a community where ties across expertise or functional groups help generate new ways of conceding problems rather than reinforce existing paradigms.
use rotation programs to help create bridges across technical competencies
assess whether certain categories of expertise are overly influential by being central in the network
assess whether highly marginalized kinds of expertise exist in the network, and look for ways to promote this perspective in meeting
use brainstorming to ensure diverse and relevant perspectives are brought to bear early in a project.
Network Objective: develop a sense-and-respond capability
create a community where awareness of expertise is high and balanced - thereby increasing the likelihood that those with he best and most relevant expertise can be located when opportunities arise.
use electronic and paper based media to communicate and educate on colleagues' expertise
leverage virtual and face-to-face community activities to focus on problem solving.
network objective: improve information flow and knowledge reuse
move from ad hoc interactions to a more balanced pattern of information exchange focused on key roles and designated go-to people with expertise that is central to community effectiveness.
create go to people and publicize their expertise to the community
leverage personal network profiles to help develop external connectivity
Network Objective: nurture value-creating interactions
a more vibrant network with targeted interactions based on needs of both community members and the organization.
intervene within and across subgroups.
identify high value creators
Network Objective: engage employees through CoP efforts
a vibrant community that thrives in its ability to attract and retain engaged members over time.
ensure that interactions are marked by reciprocation to the extent possible.
focus community members on behaviors and events that inspire energy and enthusiasm.
these transfer key people's expertise to others and can help guard against the loss of an highly connected employee, which is a knowledge drain that affects the group by virtue of both what the departing person knows and how their relationships hold the entire network together.
redistribution of relational load
when a person leaves, doing this via brokers decreases network vulnerability to key departures.
a person in a network becomes this when they are a very central person who gets overly consumed with demands from their colleagues. these people often become highly insular and stop learning from as broad a personal network.
*using coaching, mentoring, or career elopement efforts can help these influential people diversify their networks and can have a powerful impact on the individual and the group as a whole.
where the most relevant expertise in the network can be located and brought to bear as new conditions warrant. not those currently tapped for information, but the people who might be sought out when circumstances change. (developing a sense-and-respond capability)
those people that cared about similar aspects of their work were naturally drawn together. often created rigid isles in the networks based on people's expertise.
balance in the give and take in relationships. offers an important indicator of the health of voluntary groups such as communities.
when this exists, leads to more effective collaboration, and people are more likely to listen to and absorb others' knowledge. ("soft dimension")
access to resources
demand side EoS (telephone)
levels of network analysis
dyadic, node, group
who is friends with whom. social ties among families. business ties among the same families.
aggregate dyads to the groups. # of ties in network vs. # of potential ties.
measure network shape.
measures of interests
1. degree centrality - number of links a node has with other nodes
2. between centrality - placement a node between groups
3. closeness centrality - distance between a node and all other nodes.
number of links a node has with other nodes. a potential sign of power. high in-degree centrality can be a sign of prominence or prestige. high-out degree centrality can be a sign of influence and a extroverted personality.
placement a node between groups. a potential sign of structural influence. mediators/brokers, gatekeepers, bottlenecks, or obstacles to communication. valuable when linking two diverse groups.
large network structure
diverse networks rich in "structural holes" result in:
access to novel sources of information.
innovation and creativity.
small network structure
dense networks rich in strong ties result in:
social support in crisis situations.
built up concentric circles of information
connecting each suspect to others.. to build a picture of the conspiracy using telephone records, emails, and bank records.
meta-data collection on US citizens
who you call, call duration, and call times. new proposal allows the NSA to access data on all individuals within "two degrees of separation" from people suspected of having a link to terrorist connections.
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