Proxemics, Territoriality, Kinesics, Oculesics, Haptics, Vocalics, Chronemics, Objectics, Physical Environment, Silence, Physical Appearance. occurs when two or more people have an expressed struggle where there are perceived incompatible goals, scarce resources and interference from others in achieving their goals. Reasons for conflict: Different goals, Methods of reaching goals, Scarcity of resources, Relationship differences, Unequal power distribution. Positional power, Reward or punishment power, Informational power, Persuasive power. Unclear role expectations, Lack of information, Different values, Face-saving. an established, coherent set of beliefs, attitudes, customs, rules, activities, and communication patterns of an identifiable group of people. Influences: nationality, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, physical abilities, and even age. Ethnocentrism: you elevate your own culture above all others, Prejudice: ..., Intense: ..., Symbolic: ..., Tokenistic: ..., Arms-length: ..., Stereotyping: ..., In-groups/out-groups: ..., Communication style expectations: ..., Language: ..., Interaction rituals: ..., Gender issues: ... Individualism/collectivism: Individualistic culture: Self is separate, should be independent , self-sufficient. Collectivist culture: People belong to extended families: "we" or group orientation. Power distance: The degree to which members of a particular culture view the unequal distribution of power as acceptable. Moderate to Low-power distance: US , Canadian societies, Denmark, New Zealand and Sweden. High-power distance: India, the Philippines, Mexico, Venezuela, and China. Uncertainty avoidance: Low UAI - Singapore, Great Britain, Denmark, Sweden, Hong Kong and the US. more tolerant of people who fit in the norm. High UAI - Belgium, Greece, Japan, and Portugal. View people and ideas as dangerous, deviant, and have a high intolerance. Masculine/feminine: Masculine/Achievement culture:... Feminine/Nurturing culture: ... Time orientations: Monochronic time orientation: linear time measured by a clock. Polychromic time orientation: relationships rather than watching the clock. High/low context: Low-context culture: Majority of information is explicit verbal messages, with less focus on the situational context. High-context culture: Important information carried in contextual cues such as time, place, relationship, situation; less reliance on explicit verbal messages. Highly directive leader (authoritative): Efficient task outcomes, Members can feel as though they are not heard or lack input, Leaders can appear: Paternalistic and defensive, Rules oriented rather than people oriented, Use one-way communication and give little or no feedback. Participatory leader (democratic): Leader offers guidance, suggestions, listening, and concern for members, Produces moderate task efficiency, Leaders are: We-oriented and tolerant, Objective rather than subjective, Encouraging with use of honest praise and criticism. Negligent leader (laissez-faire): Offers little guidance or direction, Close to a non-leader situation, Usually generates negative effects in task productivity and morale, Leaders use: No comments, feedback, or encouragement, You-orientation. 1. Forming: discussing past, present, and potential. 2. Storming: discussing past, current, or potential problems you may run into. 3. Norming: Identify yourselves as a group, organizing your position, beginning the task at hand. 4. Performing: Developing a strong bond, acquiring knowledge, making decisions, taking responsibility for those decisions. 5. Super-Performing: highly productive, innovative, functioning at peak efficiency.