Exam III terms
Terms in this set (69)
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
Decoding of mRNA message into a polypeptide chain.
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein; also called messenger RNA.
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
The process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs.
genes that are switched on all the time because they are needed for life functions vital to an organism
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
(genetics) any event that changes genetic structure
occurs when segments of genome are deleted or added. change in a single base or many bases can lead to frame shift mutation. larger changes are irreversible and produce unusable protein
Mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Regulatory DNA/ proteing
DNA sequence to which a transcription regulator binds to determine when, where, and in what quantities a gene is to be transcribed into RNA.
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
A mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide
Somatic Germ Line
Combined DNA Index System (FBI). Used to share DNA profiles kept in the FBI's National DNA Index System (NDIS) with law enforcement bodies.
DNA is copied multiple times to produce many copies of the original molecules helpful when there's only a small DNA sample
a technique used especially for identification (as for forensic purposes) by extracting and identifying the base-pair pattern in an individual's DNA
Short, single stranded RNA molecule that base pairs with the 5' end of a DNA template strand and is elongated by DNA polymerase during DNA replication.
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
embryonic stem cell
An undifferentiated cell, taken from an embryo that has potential to give rise to various other cell or tissue types
The structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a multicellular organism's development; dependent on the control of gene expression.
nuclear transplantation of a patient's own cells to make an oocyte from which immune-compatible cells (especially stem cells) can be derived for transplant
a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
pluripotent stem cell
A stem cell that can turn into any cell type other than totipotent stem cells. (Embryonic- 6 days old), can be rejected by body (can cause cancer)
A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources.
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes.
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
That part of the chromosome which does not carry the infomation to make a protein
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA
DNA unzips into two parts and splits with the cell. In it's new home each side of the DNA strand attack to matching nucleotides to create 2 exact copies.
The removal and replacement of damaged DNA by the correct sequence
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
The use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
A set of procedures that uses living cells such as bacteria to make many identical copies of a DNA fragment.
Sequencing methods for determining the order of the nitrogenous bases
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally.
analyzing a group of people to determine genetic susceptibility to a particular disease
food whose genes have been altered to make them grow bigger or faster or more resistant to pests
Study of genetically determined variations that are revealed solely by the effects of drugs in the body.
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of the bacterial chromosome
The technique where DNA from 2 organisms are combined
Organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA from a different organism
A flowering plant which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
In an angiosperm, a short stem with four sets of modified leaves, bearing structures that function in sexual reproduction.
A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal.
Cone-bearing seed plants that lack flowers and thus have naked seeds without fruits
A fine dust that contains the sperm of seed-producing plants
provide a large surface area for the efficient transport of mineral and water from the soil into the plant
An adaptation of some terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective coat.
Pore-like openings in leaves that allow gases (CO2 and O2) and water to diffuse in and out of the leaves.
Long tubelike tissues in plants through which water and nutrients move from one part of the plant to another.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms
The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.
Nonliving vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals from the roots of a plant to its leaves
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
substance in vascular plants that make cell walls rigid
First stage of photosynthesis. Named Because it requires light to happen. Begins with the absorption of light in the Chloroplasts.
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
(botany) tissue that conducts synthesized food substances (e.g., from leaves) to parts where needed
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