Geology Unit Test Study Set 18-19
Terms in this set (75)
The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
What three ways does heat transfer on Earth?
Conduction, Convection & Radiation
What are the 6 elements of weather?
air temperature, air pressure, Humidity, Precipitation, Clouds/Fog, Wind
What two things change as you increase altitude?
air pressure and temperature
Cool air is __________ than warmer air
What is climate?
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
Which two elements of weather influence climate?
precipitation and temperature
Wind is caused by
sinking and rising of cooler and warmer air
What are the 5 types of climate zones?
cold polar, humid cold, humid temperate, humid warm, hot dry
As the sun heats water on Earth's surface, some of that water turns to water vapor by cooling. This process forms what?
Clouds are big fluffy puffs of what type of air?
a person that studies weather patterns in an attempt to predict future weather
the boundary where two air masses meet and weather occurs
What are the two types of fronts?
cold front, warm front
A huge body of air that has similar temperature and moisture level throughout
maritime polar air mass
wet and cold air mass
continental polar air mass
cold and dry
maritime tropical air mass
warm and wet air mass
continental tropical air mass
warm, dry air mass
Snow forms from
a cold air mass colliding with a warm air mass
when a cold air mass pushes warm air mass up.
Cold fronts produce:
cumulous clouds, heavy rain, thunderstorms or snow
a front where warm air mass stretches slowly over a cold air mass
Warm fronts produce:
stratus clouds, light rain or snow
Winds mass comes from what?
The measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface
When air pressure changes so does....
the strength of the wind
What things change air pressure?
height above sea level, temperature, water vapor
change in air pressure is when it is more or less ________
cold air is
warm air is
cold air means the molecules are
warm air means the molecules are
less dense air
Cycle in which heated material rises and cooler material sinks
convection cells cause....
The effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents.
what are three types of winds
polar easterlies, prevailing westerlies, trade winds
Cold winds that come in from the poles and blow East to West.
Winds that blow from west to east in the middle latitudes
prevailing winds that blow from east to west from 30 degrees latitude to the equator in both hemispheres
Pacific Ocean Gyre
a slow warm ocean current made up of cold water currents from japan that pass through the pacific ocean, warm and then split south
a warm water ocean current that moves water from the Caribbean through the Yucatan channel and loops northward into the gulf of Mexico
North Atlantic Gyre
Large, clock-wise-flowing current in the North Atlantic Ocean which moves along the east coast of the united states from the equator. It then moves off the coast of Canada towards Northwestern Europe
North Atlantic Trade Winds
occur as air moves around earth from the equator towards the north pole. These winds carry moisture and drive ocean currents pole-ward
A severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and whose strong winds of more than 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center
a localized and violently destructive windstorm occurring over land characterized by a funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground
rock that has been changed by heat and pressure
a rock that forms from compressed or cemented layers of sediment
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
changes in rock caused by the heat from nearby magma or lava
occurs over large areas when rocks buried deep beneath earths surface are changed by increased temperature and pressure (plates colliding)
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands.
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks with grains that arranged randomly and do not split in layers.
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
a front where a warm air mass is caught between two colder air masses and brings cool temperatures and large amounts of rain and snow
A boundary between air masses that don't move possibly causing rain for several days
A theory stating that the earth's outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle
made up of the lithosphere and asthenosphere
made of slowly moving plates of rock that hold continents and oceans
hot, semi-liquid zone of the upper mantle
what are the two types of crust?
oceanic and continental
A vent or fissure in the Earth's surface through which magma and gases are expelled
extremely deep areas in the ocean that are created by a subducting plate
A long, narrow chain of hills or mountains
a slowly moving mass or river of ice formed by the accumulation and compaction of snow on mountains or near the poles.
a large natural elevation of the earth's surface rising abruptly from the surrounding level; a large steep hill formed by convergent boundaries
oceanic crust is ....
very dense, thin and sometimes subducts
continental crust is...
not dense, thick and never subducts
a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
an Earth material made up of different minerals
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