31 terms

Unit 2C: Social Change in the Early Modern Era (1650-1800)

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Agricultural Revolution
17th century. New Four-Field Crop Rotation (Wheat, Oats, Clover, Turnips). More fields used all the time made more food. Selective Breeding. Enclosure movement, no longer common field. Hurt poor farmers who lost grazing rights for their cattle on the common land but agricultural production as a whole became more market oriented and efficient. Led to population explosion that provided manpower for Industrial Revolution.
Enclosure Acts
A series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and common land in the country, creating legal property rights to land that was previously considered common.
Open-Field System
A system of farming that divided the land to be cultivated by the peasants of a given village into several large fields, which were in turn cut up into long, narrow strips-fields open and not enclosed into small plots by fences or hedges-large field as community-same pattern of plowing, sowing, and harvesting.
Enclosure Movement
The 18th century privatization of common lands in England, which contributed to the increase in population and the rise of industrialization.
Four Crop Rotation
An agricultural technique that involves rotating four different crops through a field to prevent soil depletion.
Turnip Townshend
The inventor of the four crop rotation system, learned for Dutch how to cultivate sandy soil with fertilizer.
Seed Drill
Created by Jethro Tull, it allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths; this boosted crop yields.
Proletarianization
The transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners.
Cottage Industry
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Putting-Out System
A system developed in the eighteenth century in which tasks were distributed to individuals who completed the work in their own homes; also known as cottage industry.
Industrious Revolution
The shift that occurred as families in northwestern Europe focused on earning wages instead of producing goods for household consumption; this reduced their economic self-sufficiency but increased their ability to purchase consumer goods.
Guild System
The organization of artisanal production into trade-based associations, or guilds, each of which received a monopoly over its trade and the right to train apprentices and hire workers.
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
Economic Liberalism
A belief in free trade and competition based on Adam Smith's argument that the invisible hand of free competition would benefit all individuals, rich and poor.
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Atlantic Economy
English merchants believed in upholding private interests of the people and the central state. Led to Navigation Acts.
Treaty of Paris 1763
The treaty that ended the Seven Years' War in Europe and the colonies in 1763, and ratified British victory on all colonial fronts. Britain would realize its goal of monopolizing a vast trading and colonial empire.
Debt Peonage
A form of serfdom that allowed a planter or rancher to keep his workers or slaves in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money.
Atlantic Slave Trade
The forced migration of Africans across the Atlantic for slave labor on plantations and in other industries; the trade reached its peak in the eighteenth century and ultimately involved more than 12 million Africans.
Community Controls
A pattern of cooperation and common action in a traditional village that sought to uphold the economic, social, and moral stability of the closely knit community.
Charivari
Degrading public rituals used by village communities to police personal behavior and maintain moral standards.
Illegitimacy Explosion
The sharp increase in out-of-wedlock births that occurred in Europe between 1750 and 1850, caused by low wages and the breakdown of community controls.
Wet-Nursing
A widespread and flourishing business in the eighteenth century in which women were paid to breast-feed other women's babies.
Blood Sports
Events such as bullbaiting and cockfighting that involved inflicting violence and bloodshed on animals and that were popular with the eighteenth-century European masses.
Carnival
The few days of revelry in Catholic countries that preceded Lent and that included drinking, masquerading, dancing, and rowdy spectacles that upset the established order.
Just Price
The idea that prices should be fair, protecting both consumers and producers, and that they should be imposed by government decree if necessary.
Consumer Revolution
The wide-ranging growth in consumption and new attitudes toward consumer goods that emerged in the cities of northwestern Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century.
Pietism
A Protestant revival movement in early-eighteenth-century Germany and Scandinavia that emphasized a warm and emotional religion, the priesthood of all believers, and the power of Christian rebirth in everyday affairs.
Methodists
Members of a Protestant revival movement started by John Wesley, so called because they were so methodical in their devotion.
John Wesley
English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)
Jansenism
A sect of Catholicism originating with Cornelius Jansen that emphasized the heavy weight of original sin and accepted the doctrine of predestination; it was outlawed as heresy by the pope.
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