Supreme Court Cases
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Mapp v. Ohio
Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)
Obergefell v. Hodges
States obligated to recognize same-sex marriage from other states.
New Jersey v. TLO
Supreme court case in which it was decided that a student may be searched if there is "reasonable ground" for doing so.
Miller v. California
Holds that community standards determine what obscenity is
Gideon v. Wainwright
A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US
Commerce Clause power allows Congress to eliminate acts of private discrimination
US v. Nixon
Holds that executive privilege does not extend to criminal cases
Schenck v. US
Can limit free speech when there is a "clear and present danger"
Massachusetts v. Sheppard
Establishes the "good faith exception" to the exclusionary rule
District of Columbia v. Heller
Individuals have a right to own and possess firearms
US v. Eichman
preserved the right of individuals to burn the flag as a form of symbolic speech
Roth v. US
Obscenity is not protected by free speech rights
Gregg v. Georgia
upheld the death penalty was NOT cruel and unusual punishment
Loving v. Virginia
declared all laws against interracial marriage unconstitutional
US v. Lopez
The Court held that Congress had exceeded its commerce clause power by prohibiting guns in a school zone.
NY Times v. US
Limits prior restraint of the press
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Three tests are described for deciding whether the government is improperly involved with religion
Tinker v. Des Moines
Students have the right to symbolic speech at school as long as it is not disruptive
McDonald v. Chicago
The right of an individual to "keep and bear arms" protected by the 2nd Amendment is incorporated by the due process clause of the 14th Amendment and applies to the states.
Buckley v. Valeo
Candidates can use as much of their own money on their own campaigns.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
corporations have 1st amendment right to support political candidates
Gitlow v. New York
established selective incorporation of the Bill of rights; states cannot deny freedom of speech; protected through the 14th amendment
Griswold v. Connecticut
Established that there is an implied right to privacy in the U.S. Constitution
Roe v. Wade
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
Reaffirmed Roe v. Wade but upheld certain limits on its use
Texas v. Johnson
flag burning is protected by the First Amendment
Reno v. Shaw
Race can't be the primary factor in drawing district boundaries
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Baker v. Carr
One man, one vote
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Amish children do not have to go to school until they are 16---they may stop after the 8th grade
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
School newspapers can be censored by teachers and administrators
Barron v. Baltimore
Bill of Rights cannot be applied to the states
Bethel School District v. Fraser
Obscene or vulgar student speech is not protected under the first amendment
Engel v. Vitale
banned formal prayer in schools, goverment whould not make any religion the 'official' religion.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Schools can't use admission quotas and admit students solely on the basis of their race.
Brown v. Board of Education (1955)
The court delegated the task of carrying out school desegregation to district courts with orders that desegregation occur "with all deliberate speed,
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer
Case in which the Supreme Court placed limits on the executive power of the president.
gibbons v. ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
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