A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology.
The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.
land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
the estate or domain of a feudal lord
A person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
A type of labor commonly used in feudal systems in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to peruse their a new occupation. This was common in early Medeival Europe as well as in Russia until the mid 19th century.
Holy Roman Empire
An empire established in Europe in the 10th century A.D., originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy.
Magna Carta (1215)
An English document draw up by nobles under King John which limited the power of the king. It has influenced later constitutional documents in Britain and America.
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
Black Plague/Bubonic Plague
1347-1351; caused the death of 1/3 to ½ of the population of Europe; spread by infected fleas and along trade routes. Resulted in a labor shortage, the elimination of serfdom, and a decrease in the prestige of the Roman Catholic Church.
Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Great Schism of 1054
The separation between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.