PSC 101 Final Review
Terms in this set (67)
What were Aristotle's three forms of government?
Monarchy, Aristocracy, and Democracy. (that could deteriorate to Tyranny, Oligarchy, and Mob Rule)
Why did Aristotle believe in polity?
Polity governs for the interests of all, and is the best type of democracy
What did our founding fathers learn from the Ancient World?
Government should foster human excellence.
What did our founding fathers learn from the Middle Ages?
Government should facilitate the Christian life.
What did our founding fathers learn from the Enlightenment philosophers?
Government should maintain order and prosperity.
What is the difference between Presidential and Parliamentary systems?
In Parliamentary systems, courts rarely intervene and all power is vested in an elected national legislature. In Presidential systems, this is not the case.
What is Social Contract Theory?
John Locke's theory that the origin of government is in the agreement of a free people.
How did the views of John Locke shape our Declaration of Independence?
They emphasized natural and inalienable rights, as well as the contribution in social contract theory that people can overthrow the government if their rights are not preserved
What were the basic principles that laid the foundation for our Constitution?
Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail?
They were too weak
How did Shay's Rebellion highlight the weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation?
It highlighted the issues between the rich and poor, as well as how little stability there was from allowing states to rule themselves in most ways
What plans were considered during the debate over the Constitution?
Having either a strong or weak central government, as well as whether the Bill of Rights was necessary or not.
What compromises were made in making the Constitution?
The Constitution includes the Bill of Rights, yet still has a strong central government.
How do you amend the Constitution?
An Amendment may be proposed by at least 2/3 of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures. To ratify, 3/4 of state legislatures is necessary.
Why was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?
It was part of the compromise made that Anti-Federalists wanted included
What is the difference between Federalists and Anti-Federalists?
Federalists believed in a strong central government, whereas anti-Federalists did not.
How did the Federalist Papers try to win support for the ratification of the Constitution?
They tried to gain support from people as well as counteract the Anti-Federalists.
How does checks and balances work?
Each branch of government has the power to limit the actions of the other two
What are the differences between the unitary, confederal, and federal system of governments?
A unitary government is where the centralized government is subject to one authority. A federal government is where the powers of government are mixed between the federal and lower levels of government. A confederal government is where states can agree to or disagree to follow the weak central government.
What is the difference between Dual (cake-layer) federalism and Cooperative (Marble Cake) Federalism?
In dual federalism, the federal government is well restrained and there may be tension with states, whereas in cooperative federalism, the federal government looms over state government, but mutual cooperation still exists.
What powers are reserved to congress and reserved to the states?
Only states can establish local governments and regulate interstate commerce, and only congress can print money and conduct foreign treaties.
What are the concurrent powers held by both Congress and the states?
Both can collect taxes and establish courts
What is the significance of McCulloch vs Maryland?
This case allows Congress to its implied powers
What are the Federal obligations Congress has to the states?
Protection, enjoyment of life and liberty, the right of a citizen of one State to pass through, residence in any other state, pursuing lawsuits in any state courts
What is devolution?
The transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional powers
What are the rights of the accused?
The right to an attorney and the right to a fair trial.
Is prayer in public schools prohibited today?
Yes, school-led prayer is prohibited today.
What is the Lemon test?
The Lemon test states the a government action violates the Establishment Clause unless it has a significant secular purpose, and does not have anything to do with religion.
What types of speech are not protected?
Fighting words, defamation, obscenity
What does the Establishment Clause say regarding freedom of religion?
No law shall be made that respects a certain religion or prohibits the free exercise of religion.
What are some tactics used by Social Movements to get their message out?
Confrontation or creation of interest groups...
Identify the different theories regarding the origins of Social Movements.
The social strain theory states there is tension in society in some manner and provides the foundation for a potential social movement. The resource mobilization theory is the idea that there is always something in society causing tension but that there are also resources to help progress a social movement.
What are some areas where the Supreme Court has barred differences based on sex?
States cannot set different ages between men and women to be considered and adult or to buy alcohol, and that women cannot be barred from a job because of height/weight requirements.
The Court has stated that Sexual Harassment can take two forms. What are they?
Quid Pro Quo and Hostile Environment
What is the difference between Civil Liberties and Civil Rights?
Civil Liberties concern basic rights and freedoms that are guaranteed, whereas Civil Rights refers to the freedom from discrimination.
What is the difference between a conservative, a liberal, a libertarian, and a populist?
Liberals favor liberty, equality, and progressive change. Conservatives favor less change and reform, and prefers limited government. Libertarians tend to be conservative on economic issues, but liberal on social issues. Populists tend to be liberal on economic issues, but conservative on social issues.
What are different types of polls?
Public opinion polls, push polls try to influence voters, exit poll, etc.
What conditions are necessary to conduct a reasonably accurate poll?
High sample size, random sample, questions asked fairly
What role does the media play in politics?
Through their news reports, entertainment programs, and advertising, the media help shape public opinion on many things- including politics. (1) Clarifies our electoral candidates, (2) lets the public know when our government is messing up; investigative journalism (muckraking), (3) forms public debates as a form of discourse, and (4) determines what is presented.
Name the different effects the Media can have
The media can educate voters on various political issues and topics, as well as the ability to persuade a voter to feel a certain way about a topic.
How does the Federal Communications Commission regulate the media?
They issue licenses to the media and have the right to revoke it.
What did Madison say about factions and how our constitution would safeguard against them?
He thinks factions were inevitable but our Constitution was strong enough anyway to keep our country intact.
What is the difference between a lobbyist and a revolving door lobbyist?
A revolving door lobbyist has previously been employed by the government as an official.
What tactics or strategies do interest groups use to influence policy?
Hiring lobbyists, using the media to support their causes
How are interest groups regulated?
The 1995 Lobbyist Disclosure Act requires interest groups to report the names of their clients, income, and issues if they pay over $5000 in 6 months to a lobby or $20000 in 6 months to staff.
According to the Lobbyist Disclosure Act, what is the definition of a lobbyist?
Somebody that spends about 20 percent of their time lobbying, $5000
What is the difference between the National Convention and the National Committee?
The Committee is the formal governing body of a party, where the National Convention is for choosing a candidate.
What is Duverger's law, and how does it explain why we have a two party system rather than a multi-party system?
It says a two-party system comes from having a simple majority electoral system.
How do Initiative, Referendum, Recall, reforms passed during the progressive era, seek to loosen the power of political parties and give citizens more of a role in making policy?
Initiative is the ability of citizens to suggest legislation for a state, Referendum is the passage or rejection of that proposed legislation, and Recall is the ability of citizens to recall a candidate.
What is and is not regulated by the Federal Elections Commission?
Soft money and issues ads are not regulated, but campaign contributions and public funds for campaigns are.
How can a Presidential Candidate qualify for federal matching funds?
If they can raise $5000 in 20 states in contributions of $250 or less.
What is the difference between a primary and a caucus?
A caucus is led by members of a party who may run for office. A primary decides who is selected by voters
What is the difference between an open, a closed primary, and a blanket primary?
An open primary is open to all voters, closed only to that party, and blanket primaries don't restrict participation for either party (both can be voted on)
Hard vs soft money
Regulated vs unregulated
How has the Court addressed the issue of Campaign Finance Laws?
The Court has considered donations not directly to the candidate as free speech and unregulated
How do you stop a filibuster?
3/5 vote from Senate
What is the Whip?
They keep party members informed on how to vote for particular issues
What is the difference between a standing and select committee?
Standing committees are permanent and can report legislation out to the chamber for bill consideration, select committees are appointed for specific time and purpose
What is the difference between a conference and a joint committee?
Conference committees are temporary and iron out differences between version of a bill in both houses, joint committees are permanent and consists of members of both houses
How does Congress discipline its members?
A member can be impeached with a 2/3 vote
What powers does the President have?
Commander in chief, power to veto bills, and power to pardon
What is the difference between Executive Agreements, Executive Privilege, and Executive Orders?
Executive agreement is a formal agreement between US president and leaders of other nations that doesn't require Senate approval, Executive privilege is the power to keep executive communications confidential, Executive Orders are rules or regulations issued by the President
What is the process for passing the Federal budget?
The President submits budget request to Congress, Congress passes budget resolutions, markup, fix differences between houses, President signs bill
What system did the Pendleton Act replace relative to the American Federal Bureaucracy?
The Pendleton Act required qualified people only to fill the roles of bureaucratic positions
What is the structure of the National Bureaucracy?
The branches of government have their own bureaucracies, but generally they are regulated by Congress
Which case laid the foundation for Judicial Review?
McCulloch v Maryland
Which body of Congress is constitutionally charged with confirming federal judicial appointments?