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American Horizons Chapter 26
Terms in this set (41)
a politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964
Term named for Wisconsin senator who engaged in "witch hunts" against real and mostly imagined Communists inside the United States
Julius and Ethel Rosenburg
American citizens executed for treason and conspiracy to commit espionage, relating to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union
Interstate and Defense Highways Act
The largest public works program in American history, approved by President Dwight Eisenhower, that facilitated the growth of suburban America and the businesses and industries that sustained them
Brown v. Board of Education
U.S. Supreme Court decision that outlawed racial segregation in public schools
US Supreme Court associate justice. First black justice appointed to the US Supreme Court, he had previously won most of the cases he argued before the Court, including landmark civil rights case Brown v. Board of Education
Martin Luther King Jr.'s successor as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; he led the Poor People's Campaign after King's death.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
a national organization of labor unions founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers,
- united with CIO
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964)
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
*Association of laborers from industries including steel and auto
*Organized in reaction to the AFL, which represented primarily craft unions
*Headed by John L. Lewis
*Originally a committee within the AFL (1935) before becoming independent in 1938
*United with the AFL in 1955
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion
-elected president (Republican)
-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School
Inventor of television
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
British physicist who worked on the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos, was arrested in 1950 and confessed to divulging atomic secrets to the Soviets
Horace Rowan Gaither
Drafted by the chairman of the President's Science Advisory Committee, he explicitly linked science, space exploration, military capacity, capitalism, and democracy, Chairman of the Ford Foundation board
Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
He became Guatemala's president in 1951. The U.S. opposed his land redistribution plan, and forced him out of power in 1954. This set off a period of Civil war that lasted until 1996.
Henry J. Kaiser
A "miracle-man" shipbuilder, known for particularly fast construction of vessels
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties
Built new communities in the suburbs after WWII, using mass-production techniques
Suburban communities with mass-produced tract houses built in the New York and Philadelphia metropolitan areas in the 1950s by William Levitt and Sons. Typically inhabited by white middle-class people who fled the cities in search of homes to buy for their growing families.
Jerry Lee Lewis
Repackaged the music emerging from the black community (along with Elvis Presley) to make it acceptable for a much wider white audience
US General, created plan for rebuilding Europe (Marshall plan)
US senator; claimed that there were Soviet spies and Communists within the government but had no evidence; discredited by the US senate
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam
Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA)
Civil rights organization that organized the bus boycott, headed by MLK
Iranian primer minster, nationalized foreign-owned oil industry. Was ousted by the CIA
Edward R. Murrow
An American journalist who criticized McCarthyism and helped bring about the eventual censure of Joseph McCarthy by the U.S. government.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination
Indian statesman and leader with Gandhi in the struggle for home rule
President of Alabama NAACP and head of local Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union. Brought together black ministers to coordinate the bus boycott in Montgomery.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Shah (monarch) of Iran
1950s; a symbol of the rock-and-roll movement of the 50s when teenagers began to form their own subculture, dismaying to conservative parents; created a youth culture that ridiculed phony and pretentious middle-class Americans, celebrated uninhibited sexuality and spontaneity; foreshadowed the coming counterculture of the 1960s
Wrote "The Lonely Crowd"; postulates the existence of the "inner-directed" and "other-directed" personalities.
American Civil Rights activist. Chief organizer of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
Developed the polio vaccine in 1952
Term used to describe perceived disparity between US and Soviet education programs during the Cold War
Shelly v. Kraemer (1948)
Outlawed "restricted covenants" that discriminated against blacks & Jews
William H. White Jr.
author of "the organization man", which attempted to describe the special mentality of the worker in a large, bureaucratic setting