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AP European History: Chapter 27 (Dictatorships and the Second World War (1919-1945))
Terms in this set (46)
A radical dictatorship that exercises "total claims" over the beliefs and behaviors of its citizens by taking control of the economic, social, intellectual, and cultural aspects of society.
A movement characterized by extreme, often expansionist nationalism, anti-socialism, a dynamic and violent leader, and glorification of war and the military.
A pseudoscientific that maintains that the selective breeding of human beings can improve the general characteristics of a national population, which helped inspire Nazi ideals about "race and space" and ultimately contributed to the Holocaust.
A plan launch by Stalin in 1928, and determined the "revolution from above," aimed at modernizing the Soviet Union and creating a new Communist society with new attitudes, new loyalties, and a new socialist humanity.
New Economic Policy
Lenin's 1921 policy to re-establish limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic disintegration.
Collectivization of agriculture
The forcible consolidation of individual peasant farms into large state-controlled enterprises in the Soviet Union under Stalin.
The better-off peasants who were stripped of land and livestock under Stalin and were generally not permitted to join collective farms; many of them starved or were deported to forced-labor camps for "re-education."
Mussolini's private militia that destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist party headquarters, eventually pushing socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy.
A 1929 agreement that recognized the Vatican as an independent state, with Mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support in return for public support from the pope.
A movement and political party driven by extreme nationalism and racism, led by Adolf Hitler; its adherents ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945 and forced Europe into World War II.
An act pushed through the Reichstag by the Nazis that gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years.
Hitler's program based on radical imperialism, which gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples; the French, an "inferior" Latin people, occupied a middle position; the Slavs and Jews were treated harshly as "sub-humans."
The systematic effort of the Nazi state to exterminate all European Jews and other groups deemed radically inferior during the Second World War.
This society is ruled by the revolutionary working class, economic exploitation would disappear and society would be based on radical social equality.
This was the name given to the Communist Party during Stalin's rule in which the state aggressively intervened in all walks of life to pursue this social leveling.
In 1922 it was organized as a federation of four republics: The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Ukraine, Belorussia, and a Transcaucasian republic.
In the mid-1930s socialism and a new society culminated in police terror and purging of the Communist Party. Stalin used the death of his number-two-man, Sergei Kirov, to launch a reign of terror that purged the Communist Party of supposed traitors and solidified his own control.
The purges seriously weakened the Soviet Union in terms of economic, intellectual, and military terms.
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
Fascist dictator of Italy. He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
Victor Emmanuel III (r. 1900-1945)
King of Italy who asked Mussolini to form a cabinet in 1922, thus allowing Mussolini to take power legally.
The murder of Giacomo Matteotti
Following the murder of the leading Socialist politician the Italian government ruled by decree, abolished freedom of the press, and organized fixed elections.
Cult of the Duce
An Italian media campaign of newspapers, radio, and film that portrayed Mussolini as a powerful strongman who embodied of the best qualities of the Italian people.
Italian Invasion of Ethiopia (1935)
After surprising setbacks at the hands of the poorly armed Ethiopian army, the Italians won in 1936, and Mussolini could properly declare that Italy again had its empire.
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kahmpf (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. Hitler's pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).
The German Workers' Party
By 1921 Hitler had gained control of the small but growing party, which had been renamed the Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazis for short.
Hitler used his brief prison term to dictate his book where he laid out his basic ideas on "radical purification" and territorial expansion that would define National Socialism.
According to Hitler, the German race needed living space to triumph and grow.
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1946).
Nuremberg laws (1935)
These laws classified as Jewish anyone having three or more Jewish grandparents, outlawed a marriage and sexual relations between Jews and those defined as German, and deprived of Jews of all rights of citizenship.
A well-organized wave of violence in which Nazi gangs smashed windows and looted over 7,000 Jewish-owned shops, destroyed many homes, burned down over 200 synagogues, and killed dozens of Jews.
German and Italian Intervention in the Spanish Civil War
Germany and Italy intervened in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), where their military aid helped General Francisco Franco's revolutionary fascist movement defeat the democratically elected Republican government.
1939 nonaggression pact
To preclude an alliance between the West and the Soviet Union, Hitler negotiated this and shocked the world with its announcement on August 23, 1939. The treaty with the Soviet Union have Hitler the freedom to attack Poland.
Using Hitler's war technique of "lightning war," the German armies crushed Poland in four weeks.
The Battle of Britain
Is the name given to the air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940. The objective of the campaign was to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF). British forces were eventually victorious.
He formed a new French government—the Vichy regime—that adopted many aspects of National Socialist ideology and willingly placed French Jews in the hands of the Nazis.
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans.
Between 1938 and 1940, persecution turned it deadly in this campaign of "mercy killing", an important step toward genocide.
Areas where only Jews lived in Germany prior to their movement to concentration camps. They were stepping stones in the Final Solution formula. Over 500,000 people died under the terrible conditions of these places.
Japanese Occupation of Manchuria (1931)
A northern industrial province in China, invaded by the Japanese in 1931. From here the Japanese would launch an invasion of mainland China beginning in 1937.
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese sank or crippled every American battleship, but by chance all American aircraft carriers were at sea and escaped unharmed.
The Australian military and American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
Second Battle of El Alamein
In October-November 1942, British forces decisively defeated combined German and Italian armies and halted Axis penetration of north Africa. Winston Churchill called the battle of the "hinge of fate" that cemented Allied victory.
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
In April of 1945 Mussolini was captured in northern Italy by communist partisans and executed, along with his mistress and other Fascist leaders.
The Warsaw uprising
Citing military pressure, the Soviet red army refused to enter the city. Stalin and Soviet leaders thus allowed the Germans to destroy the Polish insurgents, a clinical move that paved the way for the establishment of a postwar communist regime.
The use of atomic bombs by the US
After much discussion at the upper levels of the US government, American planes dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan on August 6 and 9, 1945.
August 14, 1945
On this day the Japanese announced their surrender. The Second World War, which claimed the lives of more than 50 million soldiers and civilians, was over.
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