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HIST 201 UNIT 4
Terms in this set (203)
What is the road from Mecca to Medina
Islamic Scripture, it's language
Considered the "restoration of the Abrahamic religion". Think Jesus was a good guy, that's it.
5 Pilars of Islam
1. Shahada (profession of faith)
2. Salat (prayers)
3. Zakat (alms giving)
4. Suam (Fasting during Ramadan)
5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
What is not one of the 5 Pilars of Islam: Suam, Shahada, Jihad, Salat, Zakat, or Hajj
Jihad (the wrestle of sharing faith)
Scholars of Muslim Religion Law
What is the name of the most sacred Muslim site in the world
Who ruled the Islamic empire after the death of Muhammad?
Four Caliphs (leaders of the caliphate)
When and why did Islam divide into two groups, and what to groups are they?
Sunni / Shi'ite split in 661 over succession
Greek classics survived the burning of the library of Alexandria because...
Muslims translated them into Arabic
A position of subordination or submission in Feudalism
Where did Islam originate?
West Arabian Peninsula
Who were the three Primary Pre-Islamic arab groups/cities?
Who appeared to Muhammad in and told him to write the words that came to him?
Who was the first Muslim convert?
Kadija, wife of Muhammad
Where did Muhammad flee to?
What do Muslims believe about Jesus?
He was a Messiah (Liberator), not Savior
Collection of quotes attributed to Muhammad
Where do Muslims pray to daily?
What Caliphate was exiled to Spain during Islamic expansion? What was the city in Spain where they stayed?
What language was spoken in Byzantium Constantinople?
Abbasid capital was moved tp...
What improved in the golden age of Abbasid 8-13th century
Literacy, Math, Astronomy, paper
Who conquered the Abbasid Caliphate
Leader of mosque in Islamic tradition
a continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395
Created a civil code of law during the Byzantine period, built Hagia Sofia, last emperor to speak Latin
Riots in 532 by groups called greens and blues that overran Constantinople
Wife of Justinian that didn't let him flee riots
Idea that king is both political and religious leader
a 100 year debate as to whether Byzantium should have icons
Principle character favoring the removal of images from worship
Who was the individual who is accredited for conquering Constantinople in 1453
What groups threatened the Byzantine Empire during the 14th century
Turks, Mongols, and others
Empire that took over Byzantium and lasted til 1923-and it's capital
Ottoman Empire, Istanbul
In what country/region was Byzantium located?
Anatolia, Asia Minor, Turkey
German chieftains were known as
Rex, or king
Invasions were taking place where and by who during the Early Middle Ages?
Vikings - North
Muslims - Spain and Mediterranean
Magyars - Eastern Europe
Old Germanic Council of kings and knights always discussing what places to attack.
Merovingians kings who mysteriously kept dying when they were old enough to take the throne
Overthrew Merovingians, started Carolingian dynasty
Pepin III, 752 one of the strongmen
Son of Pepin III, who was crowned "Holy Roman Emperor" and why?
Charlemane the great 772, defeated enemies of Pope in Italy
European Jews- Spanish
Were jews treated better in Muslim lands or Christian lands?
Muslim lands where they just had to pay taxes. Suffered persecution from Christians
Areas of "protection" (and eventually persecution) for Jews
What were the key factors in the rise of the Pope's power?
Increase of missionaries and proselyting, Baptism of Angles and Saxons. Franks in France allied with Pope
Known as investiture contests in Middle Ages
Pope excommunicates king, king chooses new pope
Personal, vertical relationship between lord and vassal
Serfs bound to land (slaves)
The practice of living the life of a monk, devoting life to church
Famous monk from Middle ages
Simeon the Stylite
Who is responsible for the Gregorian Reforms and what did they consist of?
Pope Gregory VII, wanted to separate church and state, monasticize church more, against investitures
Three major sites of Relics and Pilgrimage during the Medieval Period
Santiago de compostela
Who was considered a heretic for saying the Eucharist wasn't the literal blood and body of Christ in the Medieval period?
Southern French Noblemen
What major event shocked the European population in the Late Middle Ages?
Black Plague, wiped out 1/3 of population
Considered a "sea of grass" because it was a crossroads of civilization
Steppe, Gobi desert
Who fought from horseback using composite bows
United tribes through conquering, alliances, and eventually conquered the Steppe and China
Started the Yuan Dynasty and moved capital south to Shangdu in the late Middle ages
Khubilai Khan, grandson of Genghis
After Khubilai died in 1294, the Yuan dynasty fell to
Mongol empire separated into four_________ after the death of Kubilai
Great African Civilizations of the North
Egypt, Carthage or Punt, Roman North Africa
Great African Civilizations of the Northeast
Nubia and Kush
Ethiopia or Axum
Which African civilization was not in the northeast? Nubia, Songhai, Kush, Ethiopia, or Axum
Major African Civilization in East Africa
African Civilization of the South
The Great Zimbabwe
Western African Civilizations
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
Two ethnic groups in Northern Africa with language similar to Semitic language
What society of ancient America had a military elite, wooden structures, large cities, and Mound Temple called Cahoika
Ancient American civilization with large heads, temples, gulf area
Recognized as a religious city by the Aztecs, built 1000 years before their arrival- Massive pyramids and urban planning
Who conquered the Incas in 1532
Massive Geoglyphs made by shallow incisions in soil in the desert
Nazca Lines, Peru
A belief set of South African tribes that involved animal worship, black magic, and mysticism
Sub Saharan African group forced to outskirts due to bantu migrations
Khoisans, led by Kalahari Bushman
Which Ancient American civilization built the stone city Chichen itza in 1000-1200?
Which ancient American civilization is best known for practicing human sacrifice?
Used by sailors to show detailed routes of Ports and used Rumb lines for navigation
Describe TO maps
they had Asia on top of the T, Europe on the bottom left, and Africa on the bottom right. Jerusalem was the center.
"Floating gardens" created by Aztecs included what innovative form of agriculture
City built by Aztecs
Which Ancient American Civilization had one of the world's earliest writing systems?
Which civilization built buildings on high mesas for protection?
Hohokam in the Americas was known for
Chaco Canyon in the Americas was known for
Which part of Africa had the greatest Arabian influence
East Africa- Swahili coast
Island off the Swahili Coast
Which mysterious African Society is known for its great stone cities?
Movement of warriors, farmers who used horses, Iron tools, and weapons to dominate south and east Africa
Most important poem in Epicurean Philosophy
De Rerum Naturae
What are presocratics?
Philosophers in Greece before Socrates (pre-classical thought)
Socrates is known for...
Being one of the first great philosophers, critical thinking, asking questions
Plato is known for...
Philosophy regarding dialect, ethics, and physics.
Stoicism beliefs include...
All truth is corporeal, man ought to use logic and order to regulate life. There are two major principles in the world: Matter (Material) and Force (Deity, logos, order, fate)
Life should be guided by pleasure and pain
Views based on the ideas of Plato that one should search beyond appearances for true knowledge
Modern Creation Myths
Evolution, Big Bang, New Age Spirituality
Geographically, where were Lower and Upper Egypt Located, and what major city did each contain from ancient Egypt?
Lower Egypt- Northern coast of Africa on Nile MEMPHISUpper Egypt- South towards Sudan THEBES
Details on Mesopotamian Religion?
Polytheistic,with patron deities in each city Syncretistic—blend of Sumerian and Akkadian influences
When was the Northern Kingdom of Israel Conquered? And who by?
Assyria Conquers Israel: 790 BC
Name Chronologically the 4 civilizations of Mesopotamia
Sumerians 3500-2340 Akkadian Empire 2370-1900 BC Babylonian Empire 1900-1100 BC Assyrian 1100-612 BC
Which period of Egyptian History was governed by Independent City-States
Pre-dynastic Period 4000-3100 BC
Which period of Egyptian history is known for the building of the Pyramids?
Who led the transition from Old Kingdom Egypt to Middle Kingdom Egypt?
Who in Egyptian history, is known for starting a Monotheistic religion? And in what era was it started?
Akhenaten, New Kingdom
Who dominated Egypt for a time during the Middle Kingdom era?
The Hyksos, rulers of the upland from Palestine and beyond
Where did the wealth of Egypt come from during the New Kingdom Era?
Slaves, Gold, and international trade
Who conquered Egypt, finishing off the New Kingdom era?
Alexander the Great
Who was the last Monarch of Egypt?
What is the law of moral conduct in the Egyptian religion?
What was the focus of the Egyptian State Religion?
The Sun God Amon-Ra and the Pharaoh
In the Egyptian Religion, who is the Son of Amon-Ra, and what is his significance?
Osiris, Ruler of the underworld, Resurrection specialist
In the Egyptian Religion, who is Isis?
Wife of Osiris, Mother of Horus
Which Egyptian Religious figure was represented by a falcon.
Horus, son of Isis and Osiris
Persian City in Greek
Ancient Persia was basically dominated by what religion
Creation through the word
Hunter's that usually migrate
The Science of breeding animals
Where geographically did most civilizations develop?
Along river valleys
Myths that start with just water
Iroquois, Hindu, Turkish, China, Sumerian
Creation myths that discuss a "Great void"
Creation Myths that discuss a war in heaven
Cultures whose creation myths include some form of the logos doctrine
Turkish, Hindu, Egyptian, Christian
Mesoamerican Mayan Antagonist in their creation myth
Seven Macaw, bearer of light
Born with the name Temujin, unified Mongols through warfare and alliances
son of Genghis Kahn, became the Great Kahn
Considered Ancient India's Holy River
Location of the first organized civilizations in India
Who brought Sanskrit language and Indo European religion to India
Aryans / Indo-Aryans / Indo-Europeans
Mountain pass that was the principle entrance and exit point for India
The 3 Main Gods of Classical Hinduism
Brahma: Creator, personification of Brahman
Hindu Principle At first a secret doctrine, probably not from aryans, you are reborn after death in another life form
Hindu Principle release from the "wheel of life" cycle of life and death
Indian Classes (literally translates to "color") that reflected occupation and status in society.
People of ancient India belonged to a kinship group called the Jati, a system of extended families.
name the order of the caste system
Vaishyas: Merchants, landowners
Who was at the top in the Caste System in India?
What group was at the bottom of the caste system in India?
T/F: There was no upward or downward mobility in the caste system.
False. There was downward mobility (social punishment), no upward mobility
Founder of Buddhism
Which Indian ruler accepted Buddhism and declared religious freedom?
Indian holy man who rejected Caste System and the Vedas and emphasized ascetic values over all others?
Mahavira Jain, founder of Jainism
Founded the first kingdom or "empire" in wake of Greek Withdrawal in India
Chandragupta's grandson, considered India's greatest ruler
Who conquered India in 327
Alexander the Great
The name for a king under the Mauryan Government
Who wrote Arthashastra; a guide for kings to rule in India?
Empire that originated in the Ganges river valley but spread across northern India
The Major Khanates of Mongolia and their founders
Il-Khanate: Founded by Hulagu grandson of Genghis
Chagatai Khanate: Founded by Chagatai son of Genghis
Golden Horde- Northwestern Khanate founded by Batu Khan
Northern River in China. Produced grain.
Southern River in China that produced rice.
ACCORDING TO LEGEND what was the first Chinese Dynasty-credited with developing irrigation
The first HISTORICALLY CORROBORATED Dynasty of China known for Ancestor venerantion
Chinese Dynasty that had a central administration that ruled local governors, ruled during the rise of Confucius and Daoism
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of Zhou Dynasty in ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Founder of Daoism
Lao Tzu or Laotzi
Clan of ancient China that used strong military and crossbow technology to defeat rivals and take power
Considered the first emperor of China
Qin Shi Huangdi, Qin Dynasty
"Period of the warring states" took place during which Chinese Dynasty?
The first Dynasty where north and South China were politically unified under one leader
A strict philosophy in China that was mainly concerned with the government. Harsh punishments, suppressed dissent. Developed under Qin Shi Huangdi
Minor commander who consolidated power in China and overthrew Qin Dynasty
Dynasty in China that developed as a response to Legalism, adopted confucian ideals and created an imperial council with three branches of government
Caravan trade routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran.
a big group of greek soldiers with long spears and heavy amor.
Greek Ships included what impressive feats of engineering?
Merchant Vessels and Trireme Warships,
Athens and its allies
Sparta and its allies
Philosophy that all members of a family should subordinate themselves to the patriarchal head of the family.
Yin and Yang-
Power was divided between Yin, the primary force of evil (also female, dark, night, the moon) and Yang, the primary force of good (also male, light, day, the sun). Life was the process of the interaction of these two forces.]
(the Way), a rule of right conduct.
Believe the will of Heaven is, rather, "inaction" (wu wei) not action, spontaneity, to act without acting, let nature take its course.
Lao Tzu (Laotz)-
At about the same time as Confucius, the legendary Lao- Tzu (the Old Master) taught a philosophy that became the chief rival to Confucianism. Lao-Tzu's actual existence may be more fiction than fact.
"Axial Age" new way of thinking about religion and philosophy (love of wisdom); deep thinking
1. What three or more things did Ashoka do that would cause him to be remembered as the greatest ruler of ancient India?
Non Violence promotion, Declaration of Religious freedom, Acceptance of Buddhism
General who fought for power over a divided empire in the Han decline
Greco-Persian Wars 499
Cyrus took over Iona and greeks fought over it
A war between the Delian league and the Peloponnesian league
League created and led by Sparta that consisted of Spartan and their allies
Wars fought between Rome and Carthage
When a rich person would pay for debts and land for poor people and they would basically become serfs
The "Barracks Emperors"
Period of Roman history where military men ruled. Interested in personal gain. All had short lives and reigns
The elite bodyguard of a Roman Emperor-only military unit allowed inside of city near emperor. Still they often were corrupted and murdered the emperor
Three Heirs of the fall of Rome
Byzantines, Muslims, and Germans
Mystery religion that knew something and they thought what they knew was special. Off shute of Christianity
Died in 632 after having united much of Arabia
How much is expected of a Muslim giving alms for the poor?
2.5% of increase
Site of Martyrdom of Shi'ite
Names for Cathars-leaders and followers
Italian saint who founded the Franciscan order of friars; treated all creatures, including animals, as spiritual brothers and sisters; born to wealthy merchant family and willingly gave up a life of comfort
Francis of Assisi
Founded the Dominicans to combat heresies in southern France advocate of service and self-sacrifice
Conquered Constantinople for the Ottomans in 1453
A Byzantine military officer, overthrew the emperor Maurice in the wake of a military rebellion.
Son of the governor of Africa who deposed Phocas, retook Syria, Palestine and Egypt, and saved Byzantine Empire.
Site of Martyrdom of Shi'ite
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