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language experience approach

shared experience
explain experience and teacher writes it for you

most important print concept and function

print is speech written down

alphabet knowledge: what are some things the student must learn about the letters?

identify the letter
know the sound
words that begin with that letter
upper and lowercase

if students are listening for rhyming words, they are developing

phonological awareness

concrete word


interactive writing

teacher may ask a student to come up and contribute to the writing

reading in letter-name alphabetic stage

concept of word in text
sight word learning
reading fluency

reading in alphabet knowledge

move from predictable text and shared reading to less predictable with sight words and decoding strategies.

word in text

rudimentary- point and track words in memorized text (trouble with 2 syllable words)
full- finger point read accurately, learn sight words, read to study word families.

sight word learning

partial alphabetic readers- understand initial consonants but not vowels
high frequency words

reading fluency

reading slowly, word by word, read aloud to themselves, point to words

writing in alphabet knowledge

write slowly sound by sound
most can read writing back
beginning and ending consonants and some vowels
teachers still model writing
invented spelling is ok but they need to incorporate word study patterns

model writing

interactive writing
recording student dictation
sometimes dictates sentences to students

vocabulary in alphabet knowledge

growth depends on the richness and frequency of verbal interactions with peers and adults
read alouds
sophisticated synonyms
enrich simple text, perhaps use spanish cognates
concept sorts

orthographic development

letter names
consonant sounds

letter names

beginning- mainly with consonants
begin adding some short vowels
spell with some blends and digraphs

consonant sounds

some confusion with consonants that are articulated in a similar manner
continuant sounds



other orthographic features in alphabet knowledge

consonant digraphs
consonant blends
perconsonantal nasals

instruction in alphabet knowledge

studying consonant sounds
study with short vowels


support reading- language experience, choral, echo
sight word learning- create word banks, compile personal readers

studying consonant sounds

digraphs, initial and final
beginning blends with 2 letters
final consonant blends
preconsonantal nasals

study with short vowels

two units- word families, and onset and rime
three unites- CVC patters

reading in literacy development

1 syllable words
decode 2-3 syllable words
decoding more rapidly
read silently longer and then discuss
read 30 min a day

writing in literacy development

automatically spell many words
physically can write quicker
uses but confuses vowel patterns

vocabulary in literacy development

not the same as spelling or phonics
deals with meaning
read alouds
word sorts
concept sorts
simple prefixes and suffixes

orthography in literacy development

single phoneme is spelled in many ways
-country/language of origin
-position in the word
-other sounds around ti
-vowel markers


oi/oy, ou/ow

complex consonants

kn-, wr-, gn- (initial)
-ck, -tch, -dge (final)

homophones and homographs

homophones- same sound diff. spelling
homographs- same spelling different sound

word sorts

student knows words
work on something used but confused
dont teach phonics
begin with pictures
sound and pattern and oddball

reasons to read to read high frequency words

attention freed for decoding and spelling
pronounce and spell in logical ways

problems with high frequency words

many words don't have meaning
usually share the same letters

doing word walls

be selective
add words gradually
where everyone can see them
chant and write
review activities
correct their spelling in writing

what are other phrases for spelling patterns

rime, phonogrames, word families

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