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AV NOCTI Study Guide 2
Terms in this set (153)
An entry-level position. For many it is their first industry job.
the name for anything performing or appearing in front of the camera.
operates the SWITCHER during a studio production.
The SWITCHER or Vision Mixer
is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases compositing video sources together to create special effects. Operated by the Technical Director.
The main concept of a professional SWITCHER or vision mixer is the ___, basically a row of buttons with each button representing a video source.
If the recording device is tape, a _________ ________ will operate the record/playback option during the production.
a survey organization that keeps track of who's watching what and at what time. This information(who, what, and when) is added up to produce what are called ratings.
. Ratings are a tally of
people are watching a given program.
are a measure of what
of people are watching. (RACE, AGE, GENDER ETC.)
between 8pm and 11pm. This is the time when
are at home and
. For this reason, the most successful shows are broadcast at this time, and the most advertising dollars can be charged.
generate income for the broadcaster, to pay the cost of producing or acquiring the program.
These groups of people meet to screen a show and discuss likes and dislikes.
The initial idea for the show. Is it a reality show? A documentary? A narrative? A crime drama? A sitcom?
A brief narrative description of what a program will be.
A comic book styled sequence of drawings that helps the crew understand the director's vision.
The scene by scene development of the events in your teleplay.
Federal Communications Commission or FCC
an organization to license Radio and Television stations. They determine standards and practices (inappropriate content) which must be observed or the licenses may be revoked.
(American Society of Composers and Performers) Organization that licenses music rights to show producers.
(Broadcast Music Inc.) Organization that licenses music rights to show producers.
All persons appearing in a film must sign _______ _____. This gives the filmmaker the right to use the face and likeness of the performer in the finished film.
intellectual property(music, graphics, imagery) belonging to the Copyright Holder. Permission must be obtained from the Copyright Holder before using the work in your film.
Owns intellectual property(music, graphics, imagery)
gives the viewer control over how and what is seen when viewing a program.
a monitor with copy(lines) written on it. The talent reads lines from it.
3 Camera Set-ups
Three cameras are feeding live streams to the switcher. The newsreader(anchor) must look at whichever camera is LIVE (the one that the SWITCHER is "Taking") while speaking to the audience. This is often indicated by a red light on the LIVE TAKING camera.
Equation for WATTS
Watts= Volts x Amps (W=VA)
a machine (a small computer) containing both graphic design elements (fonts, boarders, colors) and KEYING or MATTE system that allows text, and graphics such as LOWER THIRDS to be superimposed (composited) "live" over the talent during a 3 camera shoot. A CG operator is the person who performs this task.
Operates the Character Generator
Three additive primary colors
Red, Green and Blue in the RGB mode.
a graphic used to identify an on-camera speaker (his name appearing under him).
a title moving along the botton of the screen from Left to Right announcing Bulletins, Newsflashes and Weather Warnings.
Create SHARP, DIRECTIONAL beams onto a controlled and specific area of the subject.
create even washes over the whole set.
the difference between the brightest and darkest area of the frame.
Three Point Lighting
accomplished with the use of a KEY, FILL and RIM(also called a BACK or HAIR LIGHT).
mechanical flaps on the sides of lighting instruments that open and close on hinges to control the shape of the light and where it falls. They are like mounted flags.
light fixtures with lenses in front of the bulb. These lenses have concentric rings etched into the glass and they smooth out the edge of the pool of light they create, softening it.
plastic sheets of specific colors placed over the lighting instrument that tint the light a specific HUE or color.
personnel in charge of making sure everybody is in place and all equipment is ready during a LIVE show. They will also cue the talent.
operate the AUDIO CONSOLE during the show. Both the console and the operating engineer are also called MIXERS.
can be clappers of sticks used at the beginning of each shot on camera rolls to identify the take. SLATES can also be title cards at the head of a finished (EDITED) roll so the VIDEO TAPE OPERATOR knows the name of the job he is about to run.
Tones or Reference Tones
1000Hz (frequency or pitch) audio clips recorded at -20db (volume). The tone is meant to be used by audio engineers and VIDEOTAPE OPERATORS in order to adjust the playback equipment so that the accompanying media is at a comfortable volume for the audience. This tone is usually accompanied by a test card or COLOR BARS so the video signal may be calibrated as well. This is also the "bleep" tone commonly used to censor obscene or sensitive audio content.
Roll or Rolling Title
a stack of titles that run UP the screen.
ENG or Electronic News Gathering
a sport/news items captured live in the field.
small microphones that are hidden in necktie clips and upper shirt button holes. Some may be WIRELESS.
have a small transmitter which sends a signal wirelessly like walkie-talkies. A small receiver is attached to the camera or audio recorder to capture the signal. No wires mean freedom of movement.
lists of camera takes written down on the location during the shoot.
unedited takes of the camera roll or SD card that are recorded during the shoot.
Examples of ELECTRONIC NEWS GATHERING(ENG). This would include sports, news etc.
refers to disassembling the set after wrapping.
may be used by a director to BLOCK the camera shots.
items on a set such as pictures, lamps etc. They are not props because they are neither handled nor revered to by the performers.
a list of start times for major events in the production. (Shoot dates at various locations, wrap dates, editorial dates etc.)
provide the financial backing for a production.
CCU or Camera Control Unit
regulates all the elements of the camera signal. (Such as focus, exposure, white balance and color balance). Synchronizes all cameras in a 3 Camera Setup.
diagonal parallel lines in the viewfinder or monitor to indicate that the portion of the frame has reached maximum exposure (saturation) of brightness and those pixels will soon be burned out.
Background or Incidental Music
used during a dramatic scene to underscore the mood usually does not contain lyrics for these will distract and compete with the spoken dialogue.
should only be used in a scene to support the narrative and/or enhance the mood of the scene. (content dictates everything)
permission granted by the music copyright holder for you to use that music under a scene in your film or TV show. It is called synchronization because that is all you can do (run it under the film). You have no rights to the song (you cannot sell it as a record or soundtrack for radio etc.).
help determine skills/capabilities of a performer.
Proper Z Blocking
blocking to arrange the event or people and props along the Z-AXIS in close proximity and toward or away from the camera. It is one of the most important devices for effectively articulating (calling attention to ) the Z axis. It intensifies the illusion of the 3 dimensional image. Objects are positioned on an imaginary line that extends from the camera to the horizon.
occur on costumes or set elements that have high contrast stripes and delicate patterns.
In TV lighting's usually soft flat lights are used this causes the subjects to appear flat, it is for this reason that performers on newscast wear ____ __ in the studio because the lighting on six removes the shadows and flattens their faces.
may be designated a "6X lens" (6:1). This means it will blow the image up 600%.
Three Major Parts of the Studio Camera
Body, Lens and the Viewfinder.
The hole in the iris of a lens is also called the ________.
The calibrated ring on the lens indicating the aperture setting is called the _-____.
In a lens with an ADJUSTABLE APERTURE a diaphragm opens and closes. It is called an ____ because it functions like the human eye.
Charged Coupled Device (CCD)
The most common light-sensitive imaging surface on a video camera is the ___. It is divided up into a large number of light-sensitive small areas (known as pixels) which can be used to build up an image of the scene of interest. In short, it is the light sensitive IMAGING SURFACE, inside the camera where the image is formed. Light is converted into electrical energy.
White light entering a camera lens passes through a _____ _____, which splits the white light into its red, green and blue components. These three separate lights are each sent to a different chip. Or sensor.
Spreader or spider
can be used to stabilize tripod legs by applying it at the bottom. It prevents them from moving too far apart under a very heavy Camera load and falling.
The camera support or rig that allows the operator to pedestal, pan and tilt the camera during the move is called a ___ ___ or crane.
Quick Release Plate
a tripod mechanism that facilitates quick and accurate mounting and dismounting of the camera to the tripod head.
moving the camera and tripod TOWARD OR AWAY from an object on Z.
moving the camera and tripod from SIDE TO SIDE on X parallel to the picture plane.
to swivel (pivot) or rotate the camera on X horizontally.
moving the camera lens up and down on Y without moving the tripod.
moving the camera up and down on Y, lowering or raising it to the base. It does not tilt during this movement.
Great or Deep Depth of Field
all the objects in the scene on Z are rendered in sharp focus.
Shallow or Narrow Depth of Field
only a thin band on Z is rendered in sharp focus.
the blank space left between the top of the object or subject and the upper edge of the frame.
the term for the space left in front of a person moving on X toward the edge of the frame.
script abbreviation for over-the-shoulder.
script abbreviation for close-up.
script abbreviation for extreme close-up.
script abbreviation for extreme long-shot.
script abbreviation for medium shot.
script abbreviation for long-shot.
must be set to ensure that the colors are recorded correctly before you begin shooting because different "white" light sources favor different colors of the spectrum. (Daylight is BLUE, Tungsten is RED)
increases focal length.
both a transmitter and receiver.
called Y, R-Y, B-Y.
best quality video signal
synchronizes a tape source to House Sync. This ensures that all cameras and recorders are taking frames at the same time.
Shot Gun Microphone
example of a uni-directional microphone.
records in a heart-shaped pick-up pattern. Sound is picked up mostly from the front, but to a lesser extent the sides as well.
combines different audio sources and controls the volume of each. Running two or more signals though an audio console is called Mixing.
permits audio professional to monitor the volume and quality of the signal recorded.
happens when an audio loop occurs between the speaker and the microphone attached to it. It it "hearing itself".
used to monitor audio recording levels and quality.
In audio, fading one sound down, while simultaneously fading up another sound to replace it is called ___________. In picture, it is called _____-__________.
normally used to carry AUDIO signals.
normally used to carry VIDEO signals.
though a consumer grade cable, carries both audio and video. Radio corporation of america
1/4" or Phone Jack
normally used to carry AUDIO signals. Mostly obsolete.
Chroma or Chrominance
refers to color. If you are KEYING a color (such as green) it is called a ______ KEY.
In cases where you key on BRIGHTNESS, (or density, or LUMA) it is called a _________-___.
camera rolls are RE-RECORDED from a Video Player to a Video Recorder.
arranging digital media into a sequence.
empty space with timecode applied to enable frame accuracy for insert shots.
transferring digital video from tape or SD card to a hard drive.
bringing an audio or graphic file into the editing software.
EDL (Edit Decision List)
text file listing IN and OUT points of the source material (picture, audio and graphic) and the frame counts at which they appear in the timeline.
Cutaways or Inserts
can help avoid jump-cuts if there is a part of the master that is unusable.
used to number and identify each frame of the camera roll or editing timeline.
In linear tape editing, inserts must have a _______ _____.
means capturing or transferring footage to a drive. Timecode (electronic frame counts) helps keep track of ______ footage.
720p (720 progressive)
Means a resolution of 720 pixels across, displayed progressively.
720i (720 interlaced)
Means a resolution of 720 pixels across, displayed interlaced.
During digital playback or broadcast ____ means COLOR info must be synchronized with BRIGHTNESS info for each pixel of each frame.
Binary Code (1s and 0s)
In digital media, sound and light are converted into ______ ____.
Finished films begin with ______. It should contain COLOR BARS, TEST TONES, SLATE, COUNTDOWN.
Whenever analogue images or projects are DUBBED (copied) each successive copy is called a __________.
viewed over the INTERNET.
are RESOLUTION independent, until one is assigned. When scaling up and down, this is preferred.
are a fixed RESOLUTION.
the point at which something changes (speed, direction, scale, color, exposure)
a graphics file format
uses a lossy form of compression meaning that some original image information is lost and cannot be restored, possibly affecting image quality. Means JOINT PHOTOGRAPHIC EXPERTS GROUP)
Portable Network Graphics
Graphics Interchange Format
a movie format determined by the MOVING PICTURE EXPERTS GROUP.
a non-volatile memory card format for use in portable devices
Serial ATA (SATA)
is computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives.
Small Computer System Interface (pronounced scuzzi)
RGB Color Space
any additive color space based on the RGB color model. A particular RGB color space is defined by the three chromaticities of the red, green and blue additive primaries, and can produce and chromaticity that is in the triangle defined by those primary colors.
abbreviation for red-green-blue.
photometric, literary measure of light. In video, represents the brightness in an image.
The difference between the brightest possible source and the faintest possible source that the detector can accurately see in the same image is know as the _______ _____.
When light falls onto a CCD the PHOTONS are converted into _________.
a discrete bundle (or quantum) of electromagnetic (or light) energy.
a measure of the total "amount" of visible light emitted by a source. ______=brightness
light-emitting diode lamp.
the smallest change in a measured value that the instrument can detect.
Each of the pixels that represents an image stored inside a computer has a _____ _____ which describes how bright that pixel is, and/or what color it should be.
Color Planes or Channels
To represent color images, separate red, green and blue components must be specified for each pixel in RGB colorspace. Often the three different components are stored as three separate 'grayscale'(black and white) images known as _____ ______ or ________, which have to be recombined when displaying or processing.
Pixel Aspect Ratio (or PAR)
describes how the width of a pixel in a digital image compares to the height of that pixel.
the difference between light and dark on a screen, expressed by a number.
Picks up sound evenly from all directions(the root word means "all" or "every")
Picks up sound predominantly from one direction. This includes cardioid and hypercardioid microphones.
Picks up sound from two opposite directions.
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