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Terms in this set (141)
An important factor in the rapid development of industry in the United States during the last half of the 19c was
the availability of capital for investment purposes.
n its approach to union organization, the Knights of Labor officially
welcomed both skilled and unskilled workers
A long-range influence of Samuel Gompers on the American labor movement was his advocacy of
non-involvement in party politics
The "Gospel of Wealth," as advanced by Andrew Carnegie, promoted the concept that people with wealth should
use their resources to help society
One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it
represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business.
J. P. Morgan monitored his competition by placing officers of his bank on the board of companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as a(n)
The first "big business" in America, at least in terms of finance, labor relations, and management, was
the railroad industry
The Supreme Court in the United States v. Knight Company
diminished the effectiveness of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by ruling that manufacturing was not interstate commerce
Why did the proportion of women working in clerical jobs increase in the late 19c and early 20c?
because many women had taken typing and shorthand courses in school, employers did not have to invest much in training them.
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 had in common the fact that they
were greatly strengthened by the Supreme Court in the years after they were passed
Which type of governmental assistance was most helpful to labor during the period 1876-1914?
Labor unions were ruled not to be illegal conspiracies provided that their methods were honorable and peaceful in the Supreme Court case of
Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)
The 1880s movement for the eight-hour working day is usually associated with which labor organizations
the Knights of Labor
"Yellow dog" contracts were contracts
in which workers promised not to strike or join a union
A major reason for the low wages of unskilled workers throughout the late 19c was that
management was able to draw on cheap labor on a global scale.
In the 19c, railroads formed pools in order to
fix prices and divide business for greater profit
A closed shop requires workers to
join a union to secure a job.
The Haymarket bombing of May 4, 1886, was important to the labor movement because it
aroused public opposition against labor, contributed to the decline of the Knights of Labor, and caused an increase in the membership of the AFL
Why was the Clayton Anti-Trust Act an improvement over the Sherman Anti-Trust Act?
labor unions and farm organizations were no longer considered as monopolies in restraint of trade.
In the case of Gibbons v. Ogden, the United States Supreme Court did what?
affirmed the power of the federal government over commerce.
By the end of the 1800s, the use of pools, trusts, and holding companies by big business resulted in
a concentration of economic power in the hands of a few
Many employers cut wages in the late 19c by
hiring women and children
President Grover Cleveland responded to the 1894 Pullman strike by
intervening on the side of management.
In the West, the immigrants who bore the brunt of labor hostility in the 1870s and 1880s were
Labor relations at the end of the 19c were
characterized by violence and thousands of strikes.
The ideas of Social Darwinism allowed men of wealth, like Carnegie and Rockefeller, to
justify the economic inequality that favored them over the nation's poor
Think competition. Think America (USA). 1776-was the wealth of nations. Prices are determined by supply and demand. WHAT IS PRODUCED? = Consumers decide what is produced. HOW TO PRODUCE IT? = The owner decides how to produce it. FOR WHOM? = Consumers with money.
Government does not intervene/interfere with business.
Business person who became wealthy through dishonest methods. They cheated, lied, and wanted to ELIMINATE COMPETITION.
Company that has sole control of an industry. Controls all or nearly all the business of an industry to ELIMINATE COMPETITION. You can increase prices and decrease the quality.
The leader of the oil industry. First, he used horizontal intergration then, switched to vertical intergration because it was a better process.
John D. Rockefeller
The leader of the steel industry, He used vertical intergration.
When someone (ex. a leader) controls all the phases (steps) of production.
A business owned by investors that sells stock to investors.
Shares in the business. Gives ownership in a corporation.
An amazing banker who became wealthy by using his banking profits to gain control of major corporations. He ended up at the US Steel Company leader in 1901.
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors.
A process that enabled steel makers to produce strong steel, but at a low cost.
What product did the bessemer process help make possible?
It made it possible to invent elevators, skyscrapers and most importantly suspension bridges using steel from iron which was lighter and more flexible. It ultimately contributed to the rapid expansion of the steel industry leading to rapid expansion of other industries. This also created steam boats.
what is social darwinism?
It was the idea of American Capitalism or Natural Selection. It said that wealth was a measure of one's inherit value and those who had more wealth were more "fit" for society.
how are social darwinism and laissez-faire related?
social darwinism and laissez-faire are related because immigrants are coming in and the government is not doing anything about it. laisse-faire with health regulations etc. social darwinism comes in and survival of the fittest comes in within industry. if you weren't to succeed then you did succeed. if you were not you will not. and thhe immigrants if they werre ment tto suucceed after froming into the united states than theey will.
what caused the homestead strike?
when andrew carnegie's partner, Henry Frick tried to break a labor contract with his workers at carnegie steel by cutting wages, the union called a strike.
what was the significance of the homestead strike?
-many people associated with the strikers
-the strikers ultimately gave in
-carnegie steel remained non-unionized until the mid 1930's
describe factory conditions in the mid 1800's for a typical worker
the conditions were horrible.
8 to 12 hour work days.
smokey and bad breathing air.
tired/exhausting children worked in the factories.
very minimal pay.
why did frederick winslow taylor conduct "time and motion studies" in the 1880's?
he wanted to improve efficiency in a factory.
he wanted to introduce people doing simple jobs instead of doing the entire project for efficiency. this was the idea of mass production. he conducted experiments in order to prove that mass production was more effective than individual made products. Maximize workers and effect and also this is to maximize money. in a factory the quality is lower and the work environment becomes more unsafe.
What type of monopoly did andrew carnegie create? explain
andrew carnegie created a steel monopoly by buying all of the other steel industries
what type of monopoly did john d. rockefeller create? explain
he created an oil monopoly by buying all of the other oil industries
what does Captain of Industry mean?
term used to describe a business leader who's means of amassing a personal fortune contributes positively to the country in some way. they were business leaders who served the nation positively
how did the federal government justify its actions in the pullman strike?
railroad owners were able to use the sherman anti-trust act against the unions. this stated that strikes were not allowed to occur if they interfered with the government. This specific strike interfered with the mail delivery and the mail is part of the government.
what industries were involved in the pullman and homestead strikes?
-the industry involved in the pullman strike was the railroad industry (sleeping cars company)
(alot of a.a.)
• the govt backed up the industry
-the industry involved in the homestead strike was the steel industry (under carnegiee)
• the govt backed up the industry
what is socialism?
A political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
the idea that the company would not be controlled by just one person.
what were some of the major problems facing children working in factories?
they were getting very sick from diseases
they are constantly tired between work and school
they are very weak and unhealthy because of poor pay and bad conditions
• this was the guy who wrote about the coal mines and wrote about the children working, getting injured and giving birth in the factory.
how did the knights of labor differ from the american federation of labor?
the knights of labor was devoted to broad social reform such as replacing capitalism with workers cooperative and the american federation of labor focused on very specific workers issues such as wages, working hours and members could be hired.
what was that impact of the haymarket affair?
-to the unionists, the anarchists are heroes
-to the employers the anarchists were vicious criminals
-the public image of the union suffered
what is a consumer?
people who buy a product or a service that is sold by a company
what is a producer?
a business that makes a product or service for sale
what is an industry?
a group of companies that make a similar product or service
who are the knights of labor?
allows women, african americans, skilled, unskilled and immigrants
-they aimed for getting social reforms
who are the american federation of labor?
they only allow skilled workers who are white and male
-they aimed for specific reforms such as hours, wages etc.
the inventor of morse code (the telegraph) this created communication from very far distances (before the telephone) could talk between England and the united states
who is alexander grahem bell?
the inventor of the telephone
- absorption into a single firm of several firms
- all are involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
- absorption into a single firm of several firms
- all are involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
- federal law that committed American government to opposing monopolies
- prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade
- wanted to create a fairer competition in the workforce
- limit any take-overs of departments of merchandise.
Gospel of Wealth
- belief that those entrusted with society's riches had to prove themselves morally responsible
- give money to charities and to those who are less fortunate
- started by Carnegie
American Federation of Labor
- union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way
- provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
- led by Samuel Gompers
- leader of the American Railway Union
- he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike
- was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Eugene V. Debs
A mass producer of cars that used scientific management.
An agreement between owner and workers.
Leader of the Knights of Labor who hated monopoly and tyranny of money.
A government agency that oversees/ regulates union activities.
National Labor Relations Board
Where managers don't let their workers work and replaces them with replacement workers.
Replacement workers of initial workers after owners don't let the initial players play.
A factory that completely owns a town and everyone who lives in the town, works in that factory.
Person who created sleeping cars.
One of the most powerful and ruthless railroad owners from New York State.
New York Central Railroad
The railroad that Vanderbilt decided to buy but it refused so Vanderbilt banned anyone to ride it and the railroad later gave it to Vanderbilt.
The person who thought of the idea of the telegraph.
The man who invented refrigeration.
The man who perfected the type writer.
The man who introduced the kodak camera.
Workplaces where people work longer in rough conditions for low pay.
A major woman in the labor movement
Mary Harris Jones
Creator of the air brake.
Creator of the safety razor with throwaway blades.
A law that didn't allow owners to fire their workers for joining unions and guaranteed collective bargaining.
young woman who worked in the textile mills. all the business that were built such as textile mills mostly employed young woman
lowell mill girls
type of cloth or woven fabric, clothes were made in mills by the young women some textiles were even mass produced
production of goods in large numbers through the use of machinery
used to keep track of transportation to set time schedules
standard time zones
buildings in the company towns where the immigrants live
women killed while locked in the burning building (brought attention to poor working conditions)
triangle shirtwaist factory
1892 strike in Pennsylvania against Carnegie steel
Chicago railroad strike that paralyzed railway traffic nationwide
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred
detectives hired by employers as private police force, often used to end strikes
old immigrants came prepared with saved money and were skilled or educated but new immigrants came poor and unskilled
old immigrants vs new immigrants
the belief that native born whites were superior to newcomers
people blend together to create one culture
Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor in 1892
Immigration processing station in the San Francisco Bay for Asian immigrants
a factor that causes people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region
a factor that draws or attracts people to another location
A large open area beneath a ship's deck, often used to house traveling immigrants
Chinese exclusion act
Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate
how did railroads affect american industries?
transport large amounts of goods quckily and cheap. easier to obtain raw materials and sell goods to a lot more people ,generate mass production in a spiral of growth
raildroads affect on americans
how people traveled and where they lived
how did electricity affect americans?
it was a way to get affordable light for homes, central power plants could light whole cities
how did electricity affect industries?
provided light within factories allowing them to make longer work days
the invention of the telegraph which would help business leaders and officals to communicate with each other; and also the rail road which would take mail across the whole country to be delivered
how did industrialization affect the lives of workers?
workers lived in company towns which meant a shorter commute to work,forced to buy goods from the worker store,worked long hours with little pay
factory life 19th century
mostly made up of immigrants work long 12hr days 6 days a week,worked in sweatshops small hot dirty and dark,mainly woman worked there mass producing items and they were fined is any rules were broken. it was dangerous accidents were common people lost their hearing
how did business change during the industrial revolution?
before civil war most businesses small and family owned, after civil war, corporations dominated
triangle shirt waist factory incident
they want government intervention for safety rule,government expectations and new legislation laws deadliest workplace accident fire broke out
economic opportunity and religious freedom,a legal and medical inspection would be conducted at ellis island
why immigrants come to u.s
why were Americans more hostile to asians
Because they were racists against asian they were more open to european immigrants because they look more like them
challenges immigrants faced adjusting to american life
prejudice in finding jobs, crowded cities, language barriers
how did immigrants affect american culture in a positive way?
economic and socially because they were often offered patronage jobs , economic because they provided cheap unskilled labor for factories social because the country became more diverse
Closed shop vs open shop
Closed shop only hired union workers open shops hired anybody
Why did labor unions fail?
Because they were often halted and people thought they were bad because they were going about getting their rights in the wrong way halting industries .
A way of settling disputes by calling in an impartial third party whose decision is final and binding on both parties
List of names of union members, circulated among employers, to prevent those on the list from obtaining jobs
To combine in abstaining from, or preventing dealings with, as a means of intimidation or coercion
A store on company property that charges the workers higher prices for basic goods
Organization of workers who perform skilled or semi-skilled labor. Ex: Electricians and carpenters
Organization of workers who perform unskilled labor. Ex: Manufacturing
Court order forbidding unions to engage in certain activities defined as punishable
Employer denying employment to workers during a labor dispute to force union to settle on employer's terms
Carrying of signs by employees either on strike to inform public and other employees of dispute or information picketing to bring pressure to bear on employer for settlement
Destroying company property to slow or shut down the workplace
Person who continues to work or who accepts employment while workers are on strike, thereby weakening or breaking the strike
Paying worker wages in fake money that can only be used at the company store
Withdrawal of workers' labor in concert with other bargaining unit members to force the employer to improve wages, hours and conditions of employment
Plant in which every worker covered by the contract must become a member of a union
Yellow Dog Contract
Agreement by which a worker promises not to join a union if hired and which he must sign before employment is granted
Illegal use of political power for personal gain
Money gained by a political machine by overcharging the government and pocketing the difference
Full citizenship attained by an immigrant
Economic and political system based on
government control of business and property, along with equal distribution of wealth.
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