lesson 10 anatomy test 3 lab

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bodyshaft of penisscrotumexternal structure, contains the testes; regulates temperature to optimize sperm productiontemperature for sperm production94 f/ 34 cduct systeminternal structure, accessory structures that form the ducts that carries sperm from testes to external environmentepididymislocated on superior and posterolateral area of the testes, site where immature sperm cells complete maturation processductus deferens/ vas deferenssperm duct, along with blood vessels and nerves, they are enclosed in connective tissue sheath called a spermatic cord; connects the epididymis to ejaculatory duct at ampullaejaculatory ductpropels sperm thru prostate gland to urethra during ejaculationurethraruns the length of penis, common path of both urinary and reproductive system, has 3 parts ( prostatic, intermediate/ membraneous, spongy)accessory glandsproduces seminal fluid that bathes spermprostate glandaccessory gland, inferior to bladder, encircles and secretes milky fluid into urethra to activate spermseminal glands/ vesiclesaccessory gland, posterior to bladder, joins ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct; produces alkaline secretion containing fructose and other nutrients which supplies energy to sperm cells or promotes fertilization; produces 60% of seminal fluidbulbourethral glandsaccessory gland, inferior to prostate, produces thick, clear alkaline mucus that drains into membraneous urethra (washes out urine during ejaculation of semen (sperm and seminal fluid))testes covered bytunica albuginea (dense connective tissue)testes divide into whatextend into interior (forms many septa) to divide into lobules containing seminiferous tubules and rete testisseminiferous tubulessite of sperm production, interstitial cells between tubules produce testosteronerete testiscarries sperm from seminiferous tubules to epididymisexternal structures of female reproductive system includeexternal genitalia (vulva) and the mammary glandsmons pubisexternal, overlies pubic symphysislabia majorahomologous to scrotum in maleslabia minoraenclose vestibule regionvestibule region containsclitoris, urethral orifice, vaginal orificeclitorishomologous to penis in males, covered by prepuce of the clitorisurethral orificepart of urinary system, seperate from reproductive systemvaginal orificeexternal opening that leads into the internal reproductive structuresinternal female reproductive structureshymen and greater vestibular glandshymenthin fold of mucous membrane, closes vaginal openinggreater vestibular glandsflanks vaginal opening, produces lubricants during coitusall organs except for ovaries suspended byligamentous folds of peritoneumbroad ligamentsmesometrium secures uterus, mesosalpinx secures uterine tubesround ligamentssecures uterus to labia majorauterosacral ligamentssecures uterus body wallovarian ligaments: ovaries supported bysuspensory ligament anchors ovaries laterally; broad ligament the mesovarium anchors ovaries posteriorlyorgans locatedin the pelvic regionvaginabirth canal connecting vestibule to uterusuterusmuscular organ located between bladder and rectumuterus layers includeendometrium, myometrium and perimetriumendometriuminterior layer composed of a functional layer (stratum functionalis), that is formed by basal layer/ stratum basalis. Functional layer is usual site of egg implantation and is discarded during mensesmyometriummuscular medial layer of uterusserosaprotective outer layermajor structures of uteruscervix, body and funduscervixinferior uterusbody of uterusmajor portion of uterusfundus of uterussuperior uterusuterine/ fallopian tubeslocated at superolateral region of uterus extending toward ovaries. Distal end closest to ovaries have fimbriae finger like projections, ampulla is widest longest portion, isthmus located medially and is narrow with thick walled; uterine tube is usual site of egg fertilization by spermovaries defsite of female gamete (egg) development and estrogen production (both in follicles); egg ejection during ovulation (follicle forms corpus luteum to produce progesterone and some estrogen)mammary glandslocated anterior to pectoral muscles; growth starts in puberty, caused by estrogen productionmajor features of mammary glandsareola, nipple, lobesareolaexternal, pigmented area surrounding nipplenippleexternal, site of milk release in lactationlobesinternal, 15-25 lobes composed of connective and fatty tissue; lobes contain lobules containing milk producing alveoli (milk formed here through lactiferous ducts and stored in lactiferous sinus)meiosis occurs ingonadssperm and egg containhaploid complement (n), 1/2 normal chromosome number (2n); has 23 chromosomes fusion of sperm (n) and egg (n) restores the 23 pairs of chromosomes (2n) the fertilized egg (2n) has 23 chromosome pairs; fertilized egg is diploid23rd chromosome pair in fertilized egg issex chromosomemitosis occurs insomatic cellsduring mitosis chromosome number isconserved, the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell (2n, diploid)meiosisconsists of 2 nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II; the end of meiosis II yeilds 4 daughter cellsmAJOR PROCESSES IN mEIOSIS Ichromosomes undergo semi-conservative replication, occurs in interphase (before meiosis occurs) in process of synapsis, homologous chromosomes (containing genes for same trait) line up side to side to form pairs called tetrads 23 tetrads line up at equator and the homologous chromosomes can exchange genetic material with its pairs at points of crossover/ chiasmata after the crossover event, the dyads move to opposite ends during anaphase cytokinesis occurs to yeild 2 daughter cellsmajor processes of meiosis IIgenetic material does not replicate in meiosis II; each daughter cell of meiosis I has only 1/2 the homologous chromosomes each daughter cell forms 2 daughter cells (so the 2 daughter cells from meiosis I each produce 2 daughter cells to yeild 4 daughter cells by end of meiosis II)spermatogenesisstarts at puberty; occurs in seminiferous tubules of testes from spermatogonia (primary stem cells)spermatogoniaunder FSH influence during puberty, produces primary spermatocytes (through mitosis) the primary spermatocytes then undergo meiosis to yeild spermatidsspermatidsundergo spermiogenesis to form functional spermoogenesisoccurs in ovary (ovum encased in follicle by follicle/granulosa cells); influenced by gonadotropic hormones from anterior pituitary; begins with oogonia (primary stem cells) in developing femal fetus (does NOT begin puberty)oogoniaundergoes thousands of mitotic divisions in fetal development; become encapsulated by cells to form primordial follicles of ovariesprimary oocyteby birth, encapsulated oogonia grows into primary oocyte (arrested at prophase of meiosis I)at puberty FSH causesone/more follicle maturationprimary follicleformed as follicle grows around primary oocyte; follicle cells produce estrogenssecondary follicleprimary oocyte maturing; estrogen produced feedback to stop gonadotropin release by anterior pituitaryvesicular (antral) follicleprimary oocyte complete meiosis I producing secondary oocyte (arrested at metaphase II) and first polar body. The mature follicle releases secondary oocyte enclosed corona radiata (formed by granulosa cells) when anterior pituitary suddenly increases LH release; turns into corpus luteum (produces progesterone and estrogen)if LH levels drop what happenscorpus luteum degenerates and replaced by scar tissue (corpus albicans)upon sperm fertilization of the 2ndary oocyte:meiosis II proceeds ovum (2n) and 2nd polar body producedmenstrual cycle controlled byovary (estrogen/progesterone); occurs 14 days after ovulation; divided into 3 phases3 phases of menstrual cyclemesntrual, proliferative, secretorymenstrual (menses)day 1-5 where functional layer of endometrium sloughs off and bleeding occursproliferativeday 6-14 where estrogen from growing follicle causes endometrium repair, glands and blood vessels proliferate, and endometrium thickensecretoryday 15-28 where corpus luteum progesterone casues increase glands and vascular supply in endometrium; if embryo present, embryo will produce LH maintain corpus luteum