A term first coined in 1799 to describe the burst of major inventions and economic expansion that began in Britain in the late eighteenth century. It carried economic, social, AND political impacts.
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
The application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread and the weaving of cloth in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century England. (p. 603)
A simple, inexpensive, hand-powered spinning machine created by James Hargreaves in 1765.
A spinning machine created by Richard Arkwright that had a capacity of several hundred spindles and used water power; it therefore required a larger and more specialized mill - a factory.
A breakthrough invention by Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 that burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump; the early models were superseded by James Watt's more efficient steam engine, patented in 1769.
James Watt (1736-1819)
Scottish engineer; invented the steam engine; "Father of the Industrial Revolution"
Combination Acts of 1799
British laws passed in 1799 that outlawed unions and strikes, favoring capitalist business people over skilled artisans. Bitterly resented and widely disregarded by many craft guilds, the acts were repealed by Parliament in 1824.
Group of handicraft workers who attacked factories in northern England in 1811 and later, smashing the new machines that they believed were putting them out of work.
Mines Act of 1842
English law prohibiting underground work for all women and girls as well as for boys under ten.
Factory Acts (1802-1833)
English laws passed from 1802 to 1833 that limited the workday of child laborers and set minimum hygiene and safety requirements.
A gender division of labor with the wife at home as mother and homemaker and the husband as wage earner.
Cult of Domesticity
Idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands.
Great Exhibition of 1851
In 1851, the British organized the first industrial fair at London in the Crystal Palace. The fair had 100,000 exhibits that showed a wide variety of products made in the Industrial Revolution. It was a display of Britain's wealth to the world.
The location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London; an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron.
Iron Law of Wages
Theory proposed by English economist David Ricardo suggesting that the pressure of population growth prevents wages from rising above the subsistence level.
Awareness of belonging to a distinct social and economic class whose interests might conflict with those of other classes.
A government's way of supporting and aiding its own economy by laying high taxes on imported goods from other countries, as when the French responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country by imposing high tariffs on some imported products.