26 terms

Civil Rights Part II Study Set

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NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; they had been fighting to end segregation since 1909 and hoped to end it by winning many court cases with Thurgood Marshall as the main attorney
Rosa Parks
A seamstress and NAACP member who refused to yield her seat, she was arrested and a Montgomery bus boycott was suggested
Martin Luther King Jr.
Was recruited to lead SCLC bus boycott and eventually became a huge leader of the Civil Rights movement giving many influential speeches. Assassinated in Memphis in April, 1968.
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference; built to persuade nonviolent crusades against unjust laws. Also organized the national protest group, SNCC to change segregation in schools
SNCC
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee to change segregation in schools set up by the SCLC
Sit ins
Where African Americans sat down at white lunch counters and didn't leave until served, even though white store owners removed seats, raised prices, and called police. They were widely spread and often led to violent ends. Meant to desegregate lunch counters
CORE
The Congress of Racial Equality, staged sit ins and other events to desegregate
Freedom riders
Were civil rights activists who wanted to ban segregated interstate bus routes and bus terminal facilities. Rode with violent whites and rode for long periods of times
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibiting discrimination because of religion, race, national origin and gave all citizens right to enter all public accommodations
Freedom Summer of 1964
A project to register as many African American's to vote as possible while violence persisted
De facto segregation
Segregation by custom or practice
De Jure Segregation
Segregation by law
Malcom X
A former minister of the Nation of Islam, previously believed in black power and separatism but changed his mind when taking a trip to Mecca, which helped soften his attitude towards whites, he began preaching "Ballots over Bullets" but was assassinated soon after
Stokely Carmichael
Leader of SNCC who later on urged the group to stop recruiting whites and to focus on developing African American pride and called for "Black Power"
Black Power
A political slogan and encouraged self determination for those of african american descent. Emphasized racial pride. MLK opposed it because he believed it provoked violence
Black Panthers
Defended minority groups, black nationalist, focused on black power. Gained popularity by providing community services in ghettos, but was controversial due to violent standoffs with police.
Affirmative Action
A policy that seeks to correct the effects of past discrimination by favoring minority groups who were previously disadvantaged; critics argue it is "reverse discrimination"
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Eliminated voter literacy tests and enabled federal examiners to register voters in states where African-Americans were typically denied that right. Caused a massive increase in the amount of African Americans registered to vote in the South.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Prohibited discrimination in housing, strengthened anti-lynching laws
Fannie Lou Hamer
Voice of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the Democratic National Convention; worked to desegregate the Democratic Party of Mississippi.
Selma
Famous voting rights march from here to Montgomery, AL in 1965. Faced violence, had to complete march under federal protection.
Kerner Commission
LBJ appointed this group to study causes of urban violence; came to conclusion that main cause was white racism and that America is moving towards two societies - separate and unequal.
Malcolm X Background
Born Malcolm Little, in 1925, in Omaha Nebraska

Age 20- in prison for burglary, here he studied, "Nation of Islam"
Malcolm X views
Whites are the cause of the African American's condition in America
African Americans should separate themselves from white society
African Americans should arm themselves in self defense
Post Prison Malcolm X
Became an Islamic Minister after leaving prison
in New York City, Harlem, early 1960s
Malcolm X Post Hajj
Pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia called the Hajj
The experience changed his views on race and equality
He then split from the Nation of Islam
He knew this was unpopular, was shot and killed on Feb, 21st 1965 while giving a speech in NYC
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