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Terms in this set (86)
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule. Delivers "blood and iron" speech.
Blood and Iron
"Blood and Iron" was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany.
the idea that free markets can regulate themselves
A message from William I of Prussia to Napoleon III which brought France into the Franco Prussian war.
With Napoleon III, associated with the rebuilding of Paris. Made it "revolution-proof". Made it more sanitary and hospitable. Made the streets too broad for revolutionaries to be able to barricade them. New importance was given to trains, as well.
was established and met to decide on a new government.
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
the rebels, included workers, socialists, bourgeoisie Republicans. They rejected the peace with Germany that the National Assembly had negotiated and refused to recognize the authority of the National Assembly. clashed with the National Assembly, and a lot were killed and burned.
French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napoleon III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.
Established Chamber of Deputies (elected by universal male suffrage), and Senate. Threatened by Boulanger and Dreyfus affairs
General Georges Boulanger, the Minister of War who had won the support of the army by improving its military life and who was a believer in a monarchial form of overnment, was encouraged by his supporters to overthrow the government, He waited too long and Republicans had enough time to expel him from the country. Boulanger fled Belgium where he later committed suicide. Successfully handled, helped the government.
A captain blamed for something that he did not do.
Show the anti-semitism. Showed the left and right divide in the nation.
Strengthened the third Republic because it showed the monarchists as being the faction guilty of anti-government activities.
A novelist. realism. Published J'accuse, denouncing the army to cover up the scandal.
This letter was addressed to President of France Félix Faure, and accused the government of anti-Semitism and the unlawful jailing of Alfred Dreyfus, a French General Staff officer sentenced to penal servitude for life for espionage. Zola pointed out judicial errors and lack of serious evidence. The letter was printed on the front page of the newspaper, and caused a stir in France and abroad. Zola was prosecuted and found guilty of libel on 23 February 1898.
Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state
A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industrialize. F and B supported Ottoman because they didn't want the Russia to expand their power.
(r. 1855-1881) Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
He also worked to modernize Russia.
(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russian unification to suppress non-Russians. Industrialized so much but did not implement social, economic and political reforms.
House of lords, consisted of hereditary nobles and high-ranking clergy of the church
House of commons
Enacted in 1815, these laws protected British agriculture by placing strict limits on the amount of foreign grain to be imported. They resulted in keeping basic food prices artificially high until their repeal in 1846.
British conservative leader of the House of Commons who expanded the electorate in hope that the city workers would vote for the Tories instead of the liberals. But they did not change, and still voted for the liberals for more democratic changes.
A Liberal British Prime Minister who gave concessions to various parties and ultimately introduced bills for Irish self-governance
passed the Reform Bill of 1884, extended electorate to agricultural workers. Oversaw a lot of democratic changes(merit-based jobs, free public education, etc)
the aspiration for national independence felt by people under foreign domination
"realistic politics," practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles-conservative but makes liberal concessions
Young Italian Society
In 1831, this was founded by Mazzini to drive Austria from the Italian peninsula and establish an Italian republic.
Pope Pius IX
initially supported the italian unification. liberal and then super conservative, support for unification gave way to fear and hostility after he was temporarily driven from Rome during the upheavals of 1848-Syllabus of Errors: strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty
Doctrine of Papal infallibility
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia. Eventually became first king of a united Italy. Granted a liberal constitution to the people in 1848. Led the north in Italian unification and united with Garibaldi's south in 1861. Drove the pope into the Vatican city, and eventually made Rome the capital of Italy.
(1805-1872), Nationalistic leader in Italy, who started a group called Young Italy in 1831. Young Italy was a nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control of Italy. Was a writer, and wrote many things that were the spirit of the unification movement.
Friend of Mazzini, supported a democratic republic. This military leader of Italian unification: leader of the the Red Shirts.
Nationalistic group/army created and led by Guiseppe Garibaldi to end foreign control of Italy during the 19th century.
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmont king. prime minister of Piedmont-sardinia. Strengthened the country by encouraging industrial development.
Italian unification movement
Problems with Italian Unification
political unity not cultural unity, political corruption occurs, fascism
consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia (b/c of their size); the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
over Lombardy, allies with Br. and Fr. again, Austria loses Lombardy
A tariff-free zone in Germany, in order to boost German economy. Also helps build German nationalism, advocated by Friedrich List.
prussian aristocracy. supported the efforts of the Hohenzollerns, the ruling dynasty of Prussia, in their efforts to lead the struggle for German unification.
obstacles to german unification
1. Prussia, with its booming industrial economy and militaristic junker class, aroused the opposition of Austria and other German states in the south.
2. France, viewed a unified Germany as a potential threat to its leadership in Europe.
Otto von Bismarck
a member of the conservative landowning class. said that Germany could only be united through blood and iron.Used military politics.
king of Prussia. became emperor in 1871. Fully supported Bismarck's policies
Helmuth von Moltke
a Prussia general and chief of staff. Built up a strong army and navy that enabled Bismarck to succeed.
Rise of Prussian Military Power
Bismarck wanted money, the Parliament didn't give him. Parliament didn't like the Junkers. Bismarck collected money anyway and ruled illegally.
Denmark's attempt to annex Schleswig-Holstein, which was largely inhabited by Germans, led to an alliance with Austria. Denmark was quickly defeated by Prussia, Holstein was given to Austria, and Schleswig was given to Prussia. Prussia and Austria disagreed over the administration of these provinces. This set the stage for the next step in Bismarck's plan.
1866--Austria v Prussia
They quarreled over the administration of Schleswig and Holstein. Bismarck tricked Austria into declaring war over Prussia.
destroyed German Confederation but created North German Confederation
7 weeks war
North German Confederation
Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doesn't get involved in German affairs. Major step towards German unification. Had Prussia and 21 other German States, ruled by a Prussian king and a bicameral legislature.
The lower house, elected by universal male suffrage. The upper house is the Bundesrat, which represented the German states. Bismarck allowed Austria and 4 other states independence, because he didn't want to them to revenge.
Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871
Set up by Otto Von Bismarck to get the southern states to join the Northern Confederation. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.
Treaty of Frankfurt
This treaty ended the Franco-Prussian War. By this treaty, France (the loser): a) ceded to Germany the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine (rich in coal and iron and inhabited by many French people); b) agreed to pay Germany a huge war indemnity; c) consented to military occupation until the indemnity was paid. By treating the French this harshly, Bismarck planted the seeds of World War I.
The German Empire
announced in Versailles, Bismarck as Chancellor and Wilhelm I as Kaiser. A union of 25 German states, in which Prussia dominated.
Bismarck's "battle for civilization," in which his goal was to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above their allegiance to the Church. It backfired and he had to compromise. He also tried to battle Socialism, same thing happened,
A strog defender of Divine Right and of autocracy in government. dismissed Bismarck when they disagreed over policies. His nationalist program and autocratic approach helped lead to WWI.
Francis Joseph I
Tried to germanize Austria because there were too many nationalities. Tried to centralize the state. Austria lost against France and Sardinia in 1859, and lost against Prussia in 1866
To buttress the empire, Austria was forced to grant equal partnership with the hungarians. created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Austria and Hungary each had its own capital, constitution, and legislative assembly, but were united under one monarch.
The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns
A European policy of conquest that occurs in the 15th through 18th centuries in Africa, India, the Americas, and parts of Asia The motives were the same for most areas, the establishment of lucrative trade routes. Various European countries dominated these trades routes and one time or another, and a some countries, such as Great Britain and Spain, came to dominate entire countries.
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.
Internal dispute in Great Britain concerning calls for Irish independence. Ended in separation of an independent republic, first known as the Irish Free State, now called Eire, from Northern Ireland, which remained part of the United Kingdom. Height of the independence movement was from the Easter Rising of 1916 and the Irish Civil War in 1921, although independence was a political aim of the Irish nationalists since the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
Russification of Poland
When Poland rebels against Alexander II he quickly suppresses it, next he imposed many Russian laws and emancipated serfs there, the Polish people never were loyal to him confirming that he was limited to reforms on his own autocracy
After the fall of Louise Phillip, Napoleon is president, the imperial government of Napoleon III in France from 1852-1870
The term that historian Eric Hobsbawn used for the economic and political changes that tended to fuse, reinforcing each other.
Sturm und Drang
This was what the early German Romantics called themselves (storm and stress)
(Edwin Chadwick) , It is a term used to describe a follower of Jeremy Bentham, a radical philosopher that taught that public problems could be solved using a rational, scientific basis.
The belief that people contract disease by breathing bad odors and decay and putrefying excrement
Louis Pasteur , the theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes
This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen
The number of illegitimate births soared between about 1750 and 185-0 as much of Europe experienced an "illegitimacy explosion." Fewer young women were abstaining from premarital sex and more importantly fewer young men were marrying the women they got pregnant. (due to urbanization)
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
revolution of 1905
result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities.
In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution., 1905, peaceful protest to czar Nicholas II palace, led by Father Gapon, fired on by palace guards, 100s died, Nocholas had fled the city
(1905), issued by Nich. II, attempted to quiet strikes, local revolts, promised freedom of speech and assembly, called the Duma into session
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions. without war
A bill proposed after the Liberal Party came to power in England in 1906, it was designed to increase spending on social welfare services, but was initially vetoed in the House of Lords.
Was 1848 a turning point in history that failed to turn or a successful failure?
no new order was formed, but age of Metternich was over, and conservative monarchs make liberal concessions (like eventual universal suffrage), unification of Germany, Italy, France
'On Liberty" -John Mill
describes govt. as a self preserving conservative system
reasons why England didn't revolt
Reform laws for working class, repeal of corn laws
Doctrine of Papal infallibility
By Pius IX, summoned first Vatican Council. Used on matters of faith and morals. Centralized authority within church has never been asserted. Council ended soon and Italian troops occupied Rome in Franco-Prussian war.
Peace of Prague
German Protestant states, led by Saxony, reached a compromise with Ferdinand with this treaty.South was Catholic-controlled by Austria
GB purchased this from an almost- bankrupt ruler of Egypt. This was important in its military strategy. GB's occupation over Egypt also opened an African fever in Europe.
Leopold II of Belgium
Scramble for Africa
1. France - North Africa. The largest
2. GB - the most populated regions, particularly those of Southern Africa, contained valuable minerals
3. Germany - delayed by the late unification. Eastern and Southwestern Africa
4. Italy - late entry.
writers and artisists of the Realist movement focused on contemporary everyday life, esp the urban working class, neglected in imaginative literature before this time.
advent of photography, avoid realism when a camera could do the same thing better, to capture the first fleeting or personal impression made at a certain instant
To carry the emphasis on light and color even further than the Impressionists
To experiment with bright colors and sharp brush lines to focus on imagination
spheres of influence
Areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Francis Joseph issued this, which created a federation among the German states and local diets would be run by landed classes. This was rejected by the Magyars.
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