Into to American Politics (Exam 3)- Ramona Mcneal UNI
Terms in this set (64)
4 legal barriers to voting in the US
registration, Tuesday Voting, Frequency of Elections, Voter ID laws, Felony Voters
people have strong feelings about these topics (abortion, LGBTQ rights, gun rights)
candidates are least likely to talk about these because they are difficult to understand (health care, social security reform)
basing voting decisions on well-informed opinions and consideration of the future consequences of a given vote
basing voting decisions on reactions to past performance; approving the status quo or signaling a desire for change
citizens feelings or effectiveness in political affairs
the approximately 1/3 of the electorate who are undecided at the start of a campaign
you can vote for any party, no matter the party you are registered with
only registered party members can vote
a local gathering of party members to choose convention delegates
The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention
Which types of individuals are more likely to vote?
rich, educated, African-Americans, non-hispanic whites
How is voter turnout in the U.S. compared to other countries?
2nd to last, really bad. We are only better than 2 other advanced democracies
Which U.S. state does not require its citizens to register before voting?
What state level official is in charge of elections?
Secretary of State
the effort to make the delivery of information more attractive by dressing it up as entertainment
if the president does something stupid, someone explains it in a way that doesn't make it seem as bad
the process through which the media emphasize particular aspects of a news story, thereby influencing public perception of the story
influencing public perception of certain people, events, and issues by the emphasis given to particular characteristics of them (ex: Hillary Clinton and pantsuits)
a tentative measure taken or statement made to see how a new policy will be received
ability to influence the importance placed on the topics of the public agenda
a professional observer and commentator on politics
targeting your program at a specific group of people
media decide what news get covered and how, shaping political agenda
the tendency to make coverage and programming decisions based on what will attract a large audience and maximize profits
appeal to mass audience led to sensational reporting
When (what decade) did talk radio emerge as an important force in politics?
Is newspaper readership increasing or decreasing in the U.S.?
What was the first 24 hour all news cable channel?
election-related questions asked of voters right after they vote
polls that ask for reactions to hypothetical, often false, information in order to manipulate public opinion
an ongoing series of surveys that follow changes in public opinion over time
an initial poll on a candidate and issues on which campaign strategy is based and against which later polls are compared
the collective attitudes and beliefs of individuals on one or more issues
the process by which we learn our political orientations and allegiances
spiral of silence
the process by which a majority opinion becomes exaggerated because minorities do not feel comfortable speaking out in opposition
groups of citizens whose political views have been shaped by the common events of their youth
the portion of the population that is selected to participate in a poll
party members who have been elected to serve in government
ordinary citizens who identify with the party
the official structure that conducts the political business of parties
How many major parties does the U.S. have?
2 (republican and democrat)
Are parties discussed in the Constitution?
responsible party model
party government when four conditions are met: clear choice of ideologies, candidates pledged to implement ideas, party held accountable by voters, and party control over members
functional party model
A theory that parties are pragmatic, self-interested organizations, striving to maximize votes in order to win elections and control political office
an election signaling a significant change in popular allegiance from one party to another
a list of policy positions a party endorses and pledges its elected officials to enact
a substantial and long-term shift in party allegiance by individuals and groups, usually resulting in a change in policy direction
a trend among voters to identify themselves as independents rather than as members of a majority party
Political action Committee (PAC)
a private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns
selective incentives related to the interaction and bonding among group members
selective incentives in the form of tangible rewards
selective incentives that derive from the opportunity to express values and beliefs and to be committed to a greater cause
free rider problem
people who refuse to spend time, money or effort on the collective solution because they can reap the benefits whether they join or not
goods that a group can restrict to those who actually join
attempts to influence government policymakers by encouraging the general public to put pressure on them
direct interaction with public officials for the purpose of influencing policy decisions
indirect lobbying efforts that spring from widespread public concern
Lobbying from online sources.
Any lobbying method initiated by an interest group that is designed to look like the spontaneous, independent participation of many individuals
4 roles that interest groups play in American politics
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