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Arts and Humanities
Final study guide
Terms in this set (29)
a singing technique in which the singer approximates the written pitches in a voice that half sings and half speaks
refers to a parallel movement in music
music without tonality; music without a key center; most often associated with the twentieth-century avant-garde style of Arnold Schoenberg
the use of two different keys at the same time
Charles Ives "Putnam's Camp"
a piano whose sound is altered by placing objects such as bolts, screws, rubber bands, or pieces of felt between the strings of some of the keys
invented by John Cage
use of tone rows; all notes used consecutively
a compositional technique in which the composer treats all twelve pitches as equal and uses them in a highly organized way
contemporary musical style featuring the repetition of short melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns with little variation
style of music involving very limited materials, constant repetition, and very gradual change
Post-World War II intellectual movement and cultural attitude focusing on cultural pluralism and release from the confines and ideology of Western high culture
a cultural movement of the last part of the twentieth century, involving a juxtaposition of past & present, popular & refined, Western & non-Western styles
a movement in twentieth-century music that sought to return to the musical forms and aesthetics of the Baroque and Classical periods
the revival of a classical style or treatment in art, literature, architecture, or music
a movement in music when composers worked to recapture the transparency & harmonic clarity of the eighteenth century
2nd Viennese School
established by Arnold Schoenberg
he taught composition to Alban Berg and Anton Webern
the application of the principles of the twelve-tone method to musical parameters other than pitch, including duration, intensities, and timbres
strict organization of all music elements of a musical composition by arranging them into series.
french composer of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, known for his free rhythms and indefinite keys. His music is often compared to the paintings of the impressionists. The piano piece "Claire de lune" ("Moonlight") and the orchestra piece La Mer (The Sea) are two of his best-known works. most famous orchestral composition is the "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" that is based on a poem by the symbolist poet Stéphane Mallarmé.
didn't get famous until he was about 40 after the premiere of "Pelléas et Mélisande"
started his career w/ writing in late Romantic style
considered himself a part of the lie in Western music
he creator of the twelve-tone system of atonal music
american composer; known for distinctly American sound (jazz, hymns, cowboy songs, folk tunes); clear tonality; responsible for inspiring the "American Style" heard in many western scores
born in L.A.; studied with Henry Cowell (who played a large role in the inclusion of Asian and Indian scales and sounds into American music); Cages biggest question - What counts as music?; influential composer in the area of aleatoric music
invented the idea of the "prepared piano"; wrote "Imaginary Landscape No. 4" for 12 radios w/ different stations; most famous for 4'33", where the performer sits at the piano for 4 minutes & 33 seconds and does nothing;
most influential musical figure in postwar Europe; french composer and conductor who embraced :integrated serialism" & composed some of the most complex music of the century
total serialism would apply Schoenberg's concept of the tone row to ALL musical parameters; rhythm, timbre, form, dynamics, etc.
born in Russia; Studied composition from Rimsky-Korsakov (Mighty Five); commissioned to write a series of ballets (Firebird, Petrushka, The Rite of Spring); Moved to France during WWI; settled in LA during WWII; Rite of Spring premiered in 1913 and was met with outrage and deemed a scandalous work
experimented with a variety of styles throughout his career: primitivism, neo-classicism, and serialism
his musical techniques: polyrhythms, bitonality and ostinatos
one of Schoenberg's students
wrote Wozzeck; he used leitmotifs and occasional use sprechstimme in his opera
student of Schoenberg who took the ideas of serialism to the extremes by organizing timbre, rhythm in ways similar to pitch. Composed "Five Pieces for Orchestra" & used atonality
was influenced by post WWII composers
abandoned Romantic textures & forms and instead used extremely precise dynamic notation
Variations for orchestra, Op 31
Arnold Schoenberg, 12 tone
Pierre Boulez, Total Serialist
Wozzek, Act 3, Scene 4
Alban Berg, Atonal/use of Sprechstimme
Five Movements for String Quartet, Op. 5
Anton Webern, 12 tone
Aaron Copland, Open textures/Jazz influence
Discuss the essentials of 12-tone technique, including how the original/prime form of a row is developed and the various transformations it can be put through.
atonality freed music from the "straightjacket" of tonality, but had no organizing principle. the composer uses ALL the available notes instead of some of them.
Describe the three ways through which Aaron Copland went about composing distinctly American music.
he wanted to write works that were in American style and to do that, he drew from the most recognizable American musical style: jazz. Another ways was the use of purely American topics, like "billy the kid" and "rodeo" are cowboy stories. "Appalachian Spring" shows a third way, that being quoting from for songs, hymns, and country tunes. A way he made his music sound American by having a sophisticated technique. He used very widely spaces sonorities-deep bases & high, soaring violins- to evoke the wide-open spaces of the American landscape.
Innovation was (and still is) an important value for 20th/21st-century composers. Choose one composer whom you think was particularly innovative and discuss the musical characteristic and innovations of that composer.
Pierre Boulez was quite innovative by adding even more to the 12-tone technique calling it total serialism. 1-12, he had a certain pitch, duration, attack and dynamic with each number. 1 being PPPP, E Flat and 12 being FFF, B.
Early 20th-century composer found many new ways to move beyond tonality. Describe at least 3 of these new techniques, making sure to reference the composers most associated with them.
Alban Berg made the first atonal Expressionist opera.
Anton Weber used counterpoint but it being atonal. It sounds colorful rather than harsh because the texture is light and transparent.
Pierre Boulez took 12-tone music to another level by calling it that serialism.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 2, 4-5
Chapter 6 & 7
Test 3 Review
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