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Digestive System Quiz #2 (Schermerhorn)
Terms in this set (35)
What are the rugae of the stomach?
internal folds of the mucosa
double layer of the peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of stomach
covers abdominal organs; fat insulates, cushions, and protects abdominal organs
What do gastric pits secrete?
gastric juice; intrinsic factor (B12 absorption in small intestine)
The mucous cells in stomach produce bicarbonate rich alkaline mucus which....
protects stomach wall from being damaged by acid and digested by enzymes
produce pepsinogens (protein-digesting enzymes)
produce hydrochloric acid that activates enzymes
mucus neck cells
produce thin acidic mucus
produce local hormones such as gastrin
What does the stomach function in?
storage tank for food, breaks down food, chemical breakdown of proteins, and delivers chyme to the small intestine
What are the three subdivisions of the small intestine, and what percentage does each of them make up?
duodenum 5%, jejunum 35%, ileum 60%
digestive organ; longest part of alimentary canal; site of nutrient absorption into the blood
Where does the small intestine extend from?
pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
Where does chemical digestion begin?
Describe the steps of chemical digestion
Enzymes are carried to duodenum by pancreatic ducts; bile enters duodenum via bile duct
where the main pancreatic ducts and bile ducts join
fingerlike projections formed by the mucosa that house a capillary bed and lacteal that absorb nutrients
tiny projections of plasma membrane
deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine
collections of lymphatic tissue that are located in submucosa; needed because left over food containing bacteria needs to be prevented from entering the blood stream
Where does the large intestine extend from?
ileocecal valve to anus
What does the large intestine function in?
drying out food residue by absorbing water and eliminating left overs as feces
What are the subdivisions of the large intestine?
cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal
saclike first part of the large intestine
hangs from cecum; accumulation of lymphoid tissue that sometimes becomes inflamed
travels up right side of abdomen and takes a turn at right colic flexure
passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen
travels down the left side
s-shaped structure that enters the pelvis
opening of large intestine
external anal sphincter
internal anal sphincter
Are there villi in the large intestine?
goblet cells of large intestine
produce alkaline mucus which lubricates the passage of feces
Muscularis externa layer of large intestine
reduced to three bands of muscle