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Bones of the Lower Limb (Final Exam)
Terms in this set (74)
At what point in fetal development does the lower limb rotate 90 degrees around their long axes in the opposite direction of the upper limb?
by the end of 7 weeks gestation
What process has to occur during fetal development to separate webbed toes and fingers?
What type of ossification occurs in the upper and lower limbs?
endochondryl ossification, starts out as cartilage
Weight distribution of the hip:
weight is distributed evenly across the pelvis from the sacrum to the iliac bones down to the acetabulum and the head of the femur. The pubic bone and pubic symphysis are support structures preventing the weight of the body from collapsing the pelvis inward
The largest sesamoid bone in the body is the:
What bone of the lower leg is the main bony articulation with the distal femur?
True or false: The fibula does not articulate with the femur.
What portion of the fibula articulates with the talus and calcaneus, preventing too much eversion of the foot?
The majority of articulation of the ankle is between what two bones?
tibia and the talus
The acetabular notch allows for passage of what structure?
transverse acetabular ligament into the acetabular fossa
What is the indentation in the inferior portion of the acetabulum?
acetabular fossa, it allows space for ligament of the head of the femur (teres ligament) to attach to the acetabular space
What artery, running through the teres ligament (ligament of the head of the femur) supplies 1/3 of the head of the femur?
artery to the head of the femur (branch of obturator artery)
What is the acetabulum?
bony socket for articulation with the head of the femur with the lunar surface containing cartilage for impact support
What portion of the head of the femur does the ligament of the head of the femur attach?
fovea, small area on the head of the femur lacking articulating cartilage to allow for attachment of the ligament of the head of the femur
The neck of the femur extends down from the head of the femur to:
the greater and lesser trochanters of the femur
True or false: The greater trochanter of the femur is more lateral than the lesser trochanter of the femur.
True, greater trochanter=lateral and lesser trochanter=medial
The triangle formed by the long axis of the head and neck of the femur, long axis of the shaft of the femur, and the weight bearing line (line of gravity) allows for:
proper distribution of weight within the lower limbs
What is the small ridge between the greater and lesser trochanters of the femur on the anterior surface of the femur?
What is the larger ridge between the greater and lesser trochanters of the femur on the posterior surface of the femur?
What is the depression proximal to the intertrochanteric crest of the femur?
True or false: The fovea of the head of the femur and the acetabulum do not truly articulate with one another.
True, because the ligament and artery of the head of the femur run over the fovea, preventing articulation with the acetabulum
What muscles attach at the gluteal tuberosity?
What ligaments insert onto either side of the intercondylar fossa on the distal end of the femur?
ACL and PCL
The intercondylar fossa is located on the distal end of the femur between what two bony features?
medial condyle and lateral condyle
How does the angle of the head of the femur change as you age?
angle decreases from ~135 degrees at 3 years old to ~120 degrees in the elderly (away from angle of support and increasing risk of fracture)
The portion of the lower limb above the knee is considered the:
The portion of the lower limb below the knee is considered the:
What is the ridge separating the condyles of the tibia and allowing attachment of the cruciate ligaments?
intercondylar tubercles (point of attachment) of the intercondylar eminence (ridge)
Where does the pes anserinus (pigeon's foot) insert?
anterolateral tibial tubercle (Gerdy's tubercle)
What 3 muscles insert onto pes anserinus?
sartorius, gracilis, semitendinosus
The lateral malleolus is on which bone of the lower limb?
What bone of the lower limb is the medial malleolus on?
Where is the tibial plateau located?
proximal end of the tibia, consists of the medial and lateral condyles and the intercondylar eminence
What bony feature allows for attachment of the patellar ligament?
tibial tuberosity, inferior to the anterior intercondylar area
What is the origin and insertion of the PCL (posterior cruciate ligament)?
-It originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial femoral condyle and inserts into the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
-its integrity can be tested in the clinical setting by using the posterior drawer test.
What muscle originates from the soleal line?
The talus is the bony connection between the leg and the foot. What done of the leg provides the majority of articulation with the talus?
tibia, small contribution from the fibula
Sesamoid bones within the great toe allow for:
increased grip strength, give mechanical advantage
What bone makes up the heel?
What bone of the foot is lateral to the navicular bone?
How are cuneiforms numbered?
1-3 medial to lateral (off midline of body, not the foot)
The navicular bone is distal to the:
The head of the talus articulates with:
The body of the talus articulates with:
What are the 3 parts of the talus bone?
body, neck, head (from proximal to distal)
The anteromedial surface of the calcaneus that largely supports the talus (talar shelf)
What is the ligament attaching the greater trochanter of the femur and the ilium?
What ligament runs from the intertrochanteric line to the pubic bone?
What is the most posterior ligament supporting the hip that connects the ischium to the intertrochanteric line of the femur?
Why is the hip not as mobile as the shoulder?
weight bearing joint, so the hip needs more stability compromising level of mobility
What is the purpose of the fat pad in the acetabular fossa?
cushioning of the joint
What is the cartilaginous structure running along the bony edge of the acetabulum providing cushioning and assisting holding the head of the femur in place?
What is the triangle shaped cartilaginous developmental structure deep to the lunate cartilage within the acetabulum connecting the ilium, ischium, and pubis?
tri-radiate cartilage, later ossifies and is not present in adults
What is the tissue separating the synovial compartments of the knee?
infrapatellar synovial fold
What ligament holds the menisci of the knee in place?
coronary ligament (like a crown)
What ligament connects the head of the fibula and the lateral epicondyle of the femur?
Lateral collateral ligament (LCL, or fibular collateral ligament)
What ligament connects the patella to the tibial tuberosity?
What ligament connects the tibia and medial epicondyle of the femur and also inserts medially onto the medial meniscus?
Medial collateral ligament (MCL, or tibial collateral ligament)
What tendon connects the quadriceps muscle to the patella?
Injuries to what ligaments or connective tissue make up the "unhappy triad?"
ACL, MCL, and medial meniscus (results from valgus strain and rotatory force to the knee)
What ligament runs from the anterior intercondylar area to the lateral intercondylar fossa of the femur, running anterior to posterior and lateral to medial?
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
What ligament runs from the posterior intercondylar area to the anterior aspect of the intercondylar fossa of the femur, running posterior to anterior and medial to lateral?
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
What is true about the menisci of the knee?
The MCL inserts onto the medial meniscus, but the LCL does not insert onto the lateral meniscus
Where is the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament located?
at the distal end of the tibial-fibula joint on the anterior side (synarthrodial joint)
What ligament connects the talus to the fibula, on the anterior side?
anterior talofibular ligament, part of the lateral ligament of the ankle
What ligament connects the calcaneus and the fibula?
calaneofibular ligament, part of the lateral ligament of the ankle
What ligament runs along the top of the foot connecting the talus and navicular bones?
dorsal talonavicular ligament
What ligament runs along the top of the foot and connects the calcaneus and cuboid bones?
dorsal calcaneocuboid ligament
What are the 3 parts of the deltoid ligament?
anterior tibiotalar part, posterior tibiotalar part, tibiocalcaneal part, and tibionavicular part
What is name of the tendon connecting muscles of the posterior leg (calf) to the calcaneus?
calcaneal tendon (Achilles Tendon)
What ligament connects the calcaneus and the navicular bone and is essential for weight bearing and creating the plantar arch of the foot?
plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament)
What ligament is deep to the long plantar ligament and connects the calcaneus and cuboid bones?
plantar calcaneocuboid ligament (short plantar ligament)
What ligaments help create the plantar arch of the foot?
long plantar ligament and the short plantar ligament (plantar calcaneocuboid ligament)
The plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament) is medial to the:
short plantar ligament (plantar cancaneocuboid ligament)
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