U.S History: Cold War
Terms in this set (43)
A series of trials held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity.
Crimes Against Humanity
a deliberate act that causes human suffering or death on a large scale
An international organization created by President Roosevelt formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation
The Big Five
France, Great Britain, United States, Russia, and China
Why was the fighting between the US and Russia was a big issue for the United Nations?
The disagreements between the United States and Russia affected the United Nations because they were supposed to be promoting peace among nations, but were showing tension.
What did Russia believe of the US and what did the US believe of Russia?
Russia and the United States fought over their politics views and what to do with Germany after the war. Both countries compared their militaries and believed they were better than each other.
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
meeting in 1945 during WWII to discuss post-war plans, especially with Germany
Who attended the Yalta Conference?
U.S President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin
the final wartime meeting to discuss the future of Europe, but their failure to reach agreements led to the Cold War
Who attended the Potsdam Conference?
U.S President Truman, British Prime Minister Clement Atlee, and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin
Difference Between Tone of Yalta and Potsdam
The Potsdam conference had more arguments and ultimately led to the Cold War, while the Yalta was a more peaceful meeting.
provided long-term low interest loans to veterans, along with funding
included President Truman's policy of containment to stop the spread of communism and provide aid to other countries
Communism vs. Capitalism
communism involves government control over the resources or the means of production, but in capitalism, the resources or the means of production lie with a private owner
The United States' successful plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism. Instead of being offensive and fighting to stop the spread of communism, the U.S simply wanted to aid in preventing the spread of communism through providing resources.
Joint effort by the US and Britain to fly food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
Why did the U.S want to stop the spread of communism?
The U.S wanted to protect foreign countries and did not want the ideas of communism to spread throughout the country
Soviets develop Atomic Bomb
August 29, 1949, and it was surprising because they developed it so fast
What era does the development of the atomic bomb start?
Nuclear Arms Race
What industry grew during the Arms Race?
The film industry grows in Hollywood, California
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Military alliance created in 1949 made up of 12 non-Communist countries including the United States that support each other if attacked
an alliance of many Eastern European bloc countries including the USSR to protect each other against attack in response to NATO
What are the two defense agencies formed in the U.S?
Department of Defense and CIA
HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee)
committee responsible for rooting out communists in American Government and Society
ten writers and directors from the film industry who were accused of making pro-communist films and refused to cooperate with the HUAC's investigation of Communist influence in Hollywood
What other organizations moved towards "oaths of loyalty?" How is this considered contradictory to American Democratic values?
Schools and universities began to require oaths. The oaths went against American values of freedom of speech and expression.
a law that imposed sentences on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty, two main cases involved Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested in 1950 and accused of selling secrets about the atomic bomb to Soviets and eventually were executed which was controversial because of the consequences of others that did similar acts
a Republican and senator who claimed to have a list of communists in the American government, but had no credible evidence, he took advantage of the fears of communism post-WWII to become incredibly influential, and his idea of "McCarthyism" became his way of rooting out communists at all costs
What groups of people did McCarthy target?
homosexuals, professors, and eventually soldiers
act of secretly undermining something in an attempt to to destroy it
McCarthy made accusations against the U.S. Army in which he mocked and disrespected officials so he lost popularity within the senate and the public
Who was the communist leader of China?
How was Truman viewed after China's fall to communism?
Truman was viewed to be weak and a failure
What led to the splitting of Korea into the North and South?
Korea split into the North and South because of disagreements in their political views
How did the United States get involved in the Korean war?
The United States supported South Korea, and the U.S got involved when General MacArthur, leader of the United Nations forces, drove the North Koreans back across the divide, but encountered a Chinese invasion.
What was General George MacArthur's role in the Korean War, and what happened to him?
MacArthur was designated commander of the forces defending South Korea and led the force that pushed back North Koreans. A dispute between President Harry S. Truman and General Douglas MacArthur got MacArthur fired from his duties.
What was the outcome of the Korean War?
Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel and North Korea became communist and South Korea did not
dividing line between North and South Korea
a war in which the powers in conflict use third parties as substitutes instead of fighting each other directly
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
an area in which treaties or agreements between nations forbid military installations
an agreement made by opposing sides in the war to stop fighting at a certain time