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Terms in this set (32)
Christ became holy at baptism gave it back at resurrection
Believed that Jesus was a being who had attained divinity and could help others do the same
In Christian art, the image of Christ as ruler and judge of heaven and earth.
Edict of Milan
Made Christianity A RELIGION!
Offers a coherent 'salvation history' and an undeveloped version of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, implying that God is both one (monotheism) and three (trinitarianism).
Council of Nicea/Nicene Creed
In 325 AD more than 300 bishops gathered in the small town of Nicaea
They declared Arius a heretic and wrote a more elaborate Creed than the Apostles' Creed-Nicene Creed
The council of Nicaea was a major defining moment for Christianity
Belief in the Nicene Creed is an important definition of membership in the Christian community
Council of Chalcedon (451)
Declared the doctrine of the hypostatic union: Jesus is both fully human and fully divine. This is also known as the doctrine of two natures. Issued the orthodox statement on the person of Christ.
idea that the State is also the head of the Church (hierarchal flow of power from God to Emperor to Church to people)
attempted to organize all existing knowledge (Jewish, Greek, Christian) into a single system which would provide a unified intellectual account of all things (God, man, the world, and knowledge itself).
In the Sacrament of the Eucharist, this is the name given to the action of changing the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ.
factors that made the Reformation possible
1. base of support in a disunited Germany
2. growth of a new class of urban elites
3. mobile middle class and expansion of ideas in cities
4. printing press (bible)
5. martin luthers "95 thesis"
the central theological claims of Martin Luther - how is Luther Different from Thomas Aquinas in terms of God's creation - What does it mean to say in the case of Thomas Aquinas, "nature must be perfected by grace"?
- -Luther wanted more of a Biblical emphasis and had a more pessimistic view of human nature.
- that it was not fatally corrupt by sin
Communal living in monasteries, provided an environment for training the aspirant in the virtues of charity, poverty, and freedom from self-deception. "The Sayings of the Desert Fathers"
Rule of Benedict
created a unified charter for monastic life.
move from rural areas to cities, gave up wealth and family to beg and preach. Urban form of monasticism based on Matt. 10:7-9 "You received without paying, give without pay"
This radical early Protestant leader broke from Martin Luther and became a leader of the German Peasants' Revolt, at the end of which he was executed
What were the internal mechanisms and external elements that facilitated the growth of Christianity?
- good belief structure
- easier than judaism
- offer of eternal life
- non-threatening to key social constructs
-Creation of a Western Roman Empire and Edict of MIlan (Constantine's Conversion), uniformity to the religion
- missionary exspansion
- stability of the church after fall of roman empire
Once Islam checked the growth of Byzantine Christianity, orthodoxy spread to Russia. What were the factors that facilitated the rapid advance of Russian orthodoxy?
- the success of monasticism as a movement able of expansion into non-Christian territory
- entering into alliance with imperial rulers including the dynasty in Moscow
What is meant by the term "Christendom?" Woodhead argues that the way "Christianity spread across the West...was generally top down." Explain
- a unified Christian society under the ultimate control of Pope and Church, protected by secular leaders who respect the authority of Rome.
- This ideal of an orderly hierarchy of power flowing from God to Christ to Pope to Holy Roman Emperor
In terms of overseas expansion, Woodhead suggests that it followed two trajectories: the earlier more "medieval" and the later more "missionary-type." Explain
MEDIEVAL= First phases of expansion were in Christian Spain and Portugal where religion and politics were inseparable
1. Expansion pursued in the name of God
2. To be baptized was to accept the rule of the monarch and Christ
3. Instead of spread via missionaries, faith was spread by conquerors, friars and priests
MISSIONARY-TYPE= Greatly influenced by the Protestant Reformation and desire for new churches outside of Papal control
1. Nationalization of religion- emerging states forged special partnerships with a particular church (either Catholic or Protestant) which could help unify a peoplehood/territory --> a looser alliance of political power
2. Sought a deeper and informed dedication of heart and mind (via portable means: bibles, pictures, etc)
3. Instead of relying on clergy and members of the religious order to carry out the work, this phase created dedicated missionaries (missionary work attractive to women)
How would Athanasius understand the biblical text in which Jesus says, "I am my father are one." How would Arius understand the same text?
- that jesus is a god-man
- arius would not, he believes that jesus is a divine between god and man
What does the vertical focus and the presence of an altar in the churches of the "Church Christianity" as well as the location of churches in a village or town reveal about the theology of this type of Christianity?
One of the main points of Church Christianity is their emphasis on communal worship of God and its centrality to life. For this reason, the Churches are often built in the heart of civil society near political and societal powers, to illustrate Christianity's desire to bring together God and humanity.
Vertical focus on transcendence:
-This draws attention away from the individual and towards that which is higher, often portrayed by cosmic images of God.
The centrality of altar as focal point:
-It is here where the sacraments are performed
-Combined with the vertical focus on transcendence, this demonstrates that even tho God lives above, he is available on earth in the Church's sacraments.
Woodhead claims that the "authority of the clergy and the unity of the church are bound up with the sacraments." Explain
-importance of sacraments in Church Christianity in order to bring together the people and Jesus
-doctrines of 'real presence' and 'transubstantiation' argue that the bread and wine of the eucharist literally become the blood and body of Christ with the consecration of an ordained priest.
Biblical Christianity often led to formation of communities set apart from the world. Why so? Why did baptism retain such importance for this form of Christianity?
Biblical Christianity is centered on the idea that beliefs should be found only in what is written in the Bible, rather than authority figures. Biblical Christians tend to shun themselves from the world, setting their communities apart from society, claiming to be more faithful to God's word than ordinary Christians. They live as true disciples of Christ, maintaining a distance from the world in order to avoid being corrupted by it.
Emphasis on being born again/baptism--> the believer dies to the world and their natural, sinful life in order to be born again as a child of God, set apart from the corrupt world.
In what sense did Jeremiah's idea of a new covenant ("of the heart") and Paul's conversion to Christianity help give rise to the 'mystical type' of Christianity?
in a gnostic sense, it led to believe that the material world is created by an emanation or 'works' of a lower god, trapping the divine spark within the human body.
The takeover of asceticism by Church Christianity "had profound consequences for both." Explain
it threatened to divert attention form church based in rome and constantinople
Calvin agreed on the importance of grace but put more emphasis on morality and law. Explain
he wanted a self-governing city organized by christian principles and laws.
Woodward claims, "Biblical Christianity is notoriously prone to shism." Explain
once it is accepted that each individual has the right to interpret god's word for their-self it becomes harder to maintain unity.
Mystical Christianity insists on the radical implications of 'boundary-crossing'. Explain
that everything to learn the ways of god one must realize within their-self
Woodward claims, "More than modern science, it is modern liberal values and a turn to subjective experience which have challenged and divided Christians." Explain
the values and ethics of liberals is dividing christians such as those believing homosexuality is okay
atonement, making you one with god
What three things made jesus so important?
- he performed miracles
- he resurrected
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