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303 terms

STNA Vocabulary

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abandonment
Leaving a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transferred to someone with equal or greater medical training.
abdominal thrust
a strong push into the region between the thorax and pelvis (diaphragm) Hemlick maneuver
abduction pillow
goes between the legs; it helps keep the legs spread
abuse
The intentional mistreatment or harm of another person
accidents
an unfortunate event resulting from carelessness or ignorance
activities
things that are done for enjoyment, often as part of education and often in groups.
adaptive devices
special equipment that helps a person who is ill or disabled to perform ADLs; also called assistive devices.
ADL
Activities of daily living
admission
the act or process of admitting
admitting resident
the individual being accepted into a Long Term Care Facility
affected side
a weakened side from a stroke or injury; also called the "weaker" or "involved" side.
aging process
the natural occurrences in the body that produce the changes associated with growing old
agitation
commotion, excitement; uneasiness
alternating pressure mattress
[P]:alt pressure increase/decreases with use of pump; [TNI]:Assess on admit/schedule limited mobility + drainage, body fluids, contained pus, Stage III/IV; post operative flap, pain management; [R]: pressure can be reduced under bony prominences but increased under others
Alzheimer's
a progressive form of presenile dementia that is similar to senile dementia except that it usually starts in the 40s or 50s; first symptoms are impaired memory which is followed by impaired thought and speech and finally complete helplessness
ambulation
walking or moving from one place to another
amputees
an individual who has had a limb removed
anger
a strong feeling of displeasure
antiembolic stockings
stockings made of elastic fabric that provide support promote blood flow and prevent the formation of blood clots
anxiety
An emotional state of high energy, with the stress response as the body's reaction to it.
aphasia
inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion
appropriate response
a reply that is made that is suitable for the circumstances
arthritis
inflammation of a joint or joints
aseptic
free from disease-causing microorganisms
assistive device
see addaptive devices.
axillary temperature
Temperature taken at the armpit
back strain
hurting ones back
bacteria
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
bargaining
occurs when patients accept death but want more time to live
basic needs
These are the things people cannot live without, such as food, clothing, and shelter.
basic skin care
Clean and moisturize your skin daily. Block the sun. Seek professional help for skin problems. Eat a balanced diet. Self screening.
bathing
the act of washing yourself (or another person)
bathing resident
the act of washing a patient
bed cradle
a metal or plastic frame suspended over the hospital bed to keep the weight of the linen off the resident's body
bed height
The level of a patient's bed
bed position
the position the bed is in. also controlled by buttons on the control of the bed.
bedpan
a shallow vessel used by a bedridden patient for defecation and urination
bladder training
goal is to gain control of urination done as directed by nurse and care plan person uses toilet/pan at frequent regular intervals and is slowly increased. Person has catheter which is clamped to prevent urine flow for periods of time (1-2hrs at first then up to 3-4hrs) to train bladder
blindness
the inability to see
blood pressure
the pressure that is exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels
body alignment
the way the head, trunk, arms, and legs are aligned with one another; posture
body fluids
tears, saliva, sputum (mucous coughed up), urine, feces, semen, vaginal secretions, and pus or other wound drainage
body language
nonverbal communication through gestures, facial expressions, behaviors, and posture
body mechanics
The proper use of the body to facilitate lifting and moving and preventing injury.
bowel program
Program that manipulates factors within a person's control (timing of defecation, exercise, diet) to produce a regular pattern of comfortable defecation without medication or enemas
breathing
The process involving alternate inhalation and exhalation of air that ventilates the lungs.
burnout
exhaustion of physical or emotional strength or motivation, usually as a result of prolonged stress or frustration
call light
allows the patient to call for help via light and/or sound
cancer
disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth
cane
held on strong side, goes forward with weak side before the strong side step after
cardiac arrest
Sudden, unexpected stopping of heart action; sudden cardiac death
care impaired
doing most if not all of the ADLs for an impaired resident
care plan
a written plan for each resident created by a nurse; outlines the steps taken by the staff to help the resident reach his or her goals
cast
bandage consisting of a firm covering (often made of plaster of Paris) that immobilizes broken bones while they heal
cataracts
eye disease in which the lens becomes covered in an opaque film that affects sight, eventually causing total blindness.
catheter care
thorough cleaning of the perineal area (especially around the urethra) and the catheter tubing that extends outside of the body, to prevent infection
cc's in an ounce
30
central nervous system
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
cerebral vascular accident
caused by interruption in blood flow to the brain due to a blockage or bleeding in a cerebral artery
charge nurse
registered nurse or licensed practical nurse;supervises the other nurses for a particular shift
circulation
the movement of substances within the body in body fluids
clarification
the act of making clear or understandable, an explanation
clear liquid diet
a diet that consists of foods that are liquid at room temperature and leave little residue in the intestine. Ex: Water, Sprite, Ginger Ale, all beverages without any residue, broth, Jello
clergy
the group of people who have been ordained for religious service
cold compress
a cold folded and moistened cloth or towel that is placed over a small area of the body for moist cold therapy
combative resident
resident with violent or hostile behavior.
comfort care
palliative care
communication
The exchange of information between people
compensation
something (such as money) given or received as payment or reparation (as for a service or loss or injury)
competency evaluation program
state operated programto certify skills persons wanting to be a nurse assistant
confidentiality
the act of holding information in confidence, not to be released to unauthorized individuals
confused resident
the inability to think clearly., a patient with a distorted mental status
congestive heart failure
inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues
constipation
Hard, slow stools that are difficult to eliminate; often a result of too little fiber in the diet
constrict
to make smaller or narrower, draw together, squeeze; to stop or cause to falter
contact isolation
used when caring for people infected with pathogens that can be transmitted directly or indirectly
contamination
The process of becoming unclean
contracture
a severe tightening of a flexor muscle resulting in bending of a joint
converting measures
one milliliter (mL) is a unit of measure equal to one cubic centimeter (cc). 1 oz.=30 mL or 30 cc. 1/4 cup= 2 oz.= 60 mL. 1/2cup= 4 oz.= 120 mL. 1 cup= 8 oz.= 240 mL. Use your facility's policies on whether to document using "mL" or "cc"
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic bronchitis - bronchiole lining inflamed, excess mucus formed; emphysema - walls of alveoli break down; HYPOXIC DRIVE (not in asthma)
cueing
use of signals to indicate that a certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop
CVA
cerebrovascular accident (stroke) occurs when blood flow to the brain is impaired, resulting in a lack of oxygen to the brain tissue
cyanotic
the bluish color of the mucous membranes, nail beds, and skin that occurs when blood is not picking up an adequate amount of oxygen from the lungs
death and dying
Psychologist Elisabeth Kuber-Ross (1969) - described death as an orderly transition involving five distinct stages.
1) Denial
2) Anger
3) Negotiation
4) Resignation
5) Acceptance
dehydration
a serious reduction in the body's water content
dementia
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
denial
a defense mechanism in which unpleasant thought or desires are ignored or excluded from consciousness
dentures
false teeth
depression
The condition of feeling apathetic, hopeless, and withdrawn from others.
developmental process
family transitions, family stage task completion or progression, individual development, development of healt issues and family impact
diabetes
A condition of abnormal use of glucose, usually caused by too little insulin or lack of response to insulin.
diabetic
suffering from diabetes
dialysis
process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the bloodstream when the kidneys no longer function
diastolic
Measurement of blood pressure taken when the heart is at rest; measurement of the constant pressure in arteries.
digestion
the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body
discharging resident
the official release of a resident from a health care facility to their home; the team helps prepare the resident to leave
disinfection
destruction of pathogens by chemical or physical means
disoriented resident
a resident that does not know: who he or anyone is (person), town/city (place),current year (time)
disposing of contaminated materials
dispose of in a designated biohazard bag/container
documentation
confirmation that some fact or statement is truea
dressing
sterile materials used to cover an incision
dry skin
common in the aging person because of the decline in size, number and output of sweat and sebacious glands
dying
process of decline in body functions, resulting in death of an organism
dysphagia
condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
edema
swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
elastic stockings
exert pressure on vains to promote venous blood flow, helping to prevent blood clot (thrombi) blood clot is a thrombus. Sluggish flow may cause thrombus if it breaks off it is an embolus
elevated head
when the patients head is raised via pillow
elimination
the bodily process of discharging waste matter
empathy
understanding and entering into another's feelings
emphysema
disease in which the tissues of the lungs lose elasticity, making breathing very difficult
ethics
moral principles or values
extremity
that part of a limb that is farthest from the torso
eye glasses
lens worn to aid vision
falls
leading cause of accidentak death amoung elderly people
fecal impaction
accumulation of hardened feces in the rectum or lower colon which the person cannot move
feeding
the act of supplying food and nourishment
fire safty
precautions in case of a fire or that help prevent and or contain a fire
flatus
gas in the digestive tract or expelled through the anus
flexed
bend, move, or stretch
fluid intake
This will help keep a client hydrated depending on weather and type of treatment.
foot board
a piece of wood or plastic placed at the end of the hospital bed and used for positioning the resident's feet
foot care
daily foot check for blisters, reddened areas, swelling
foot drop
The foot falls down at the ankle; permanent plantar flexion
Fowler's position
a semi-sitting position; the head of the bed is raised between 45 and 60 degrees
fraud
a deliberate deception intended to produce unlawful gain
free from disease
aseptic
frequent urination
polyuria
gait belt
device used to transfer people from one position to another or from one thing to another. For example you would use a gait belt to move a patient from a standing position to a wheelchair
gastric feedings
feeding provided through a tube directly into the stomach
gastrostomy tube
a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach
geriatrics
the branch of medical science that deals with diseases and problems specific to old people
gestures
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another
gloves
to protect yourself from infections or spread of disease
grieving process
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
hair care
dry as quickly as posible after shampooing, shampoo depends on care plan, keep shampoo out of eyes, do not cut to remove matting
hallucination
delusion; false idea; false perception of objects with a compelling sense of their reality; objects so perceived; V. hallucinate; ADJ. hallucinatory
hand tremors
movement of hands uncontrollable
hand washing
Do this thoroughly when finished with the activity. Use antibacterial soap and warm water. Lather both sides of your hands and between your fingers. Rinse well.
hearing aid
a conical acoustic device formerly used to direct sound to the ear of a hearing-impaired person
hearing impaired
unable to hear or hear well
hearing loss
partial or complete loss of hearing
hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body
HIV
infection by the human immunideficiency virus
hospice care
treatment of the terminally ill in their own homes, or in special hospital units or other facilities, with the goal of helping them to die comfortably, without pain
hydration
Maintenance of body fluid balance
ice bag
a waterproof bag filled with ice: applied to the body (especially the head) to cool or reduce swelling
ileostomy
creation of a new opening through the abdominal wall into the ileum
immune system
a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
impairment
damage that results in a reduction of strength or quality
incontinence
inability to control bladder and/or bowels
indwelling catheter
a catheter that stays in the bladder for a period of time.
infection
an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted
infection control
practices and procedures that prevent the spread of infection
input and output
Oral Fluids- 1100-1400, Solid Food-800-1000 and oxidative metabolism 300ml and OUTPUT- Kidneys 1200-1500, skin 500-600 lungs 400 and GI 100-200----TOTAL IN- 2200-2700 TOTAL LOSSES- 2200-2700
insulin
Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.
intake
the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
intake and output
is one tool to assess fluid status by keeping a record of a client't fluid intake and fluid loss overa a 24-hour period.
integumentary system
the skin and its appendages
isolation
keeping an infected person in the hospital or staying at home in bed when suffering form a disease as a way of controlling the transmission of infectious diseases
IV care
cleaning around the IV site while refraining from tugging or putting strain on the IV or tubing.
laxatives
medications that stimulate bowel activity and assist fecal elimination
life support
of or pertaining to equipment or measures that sustain or artificially substitute for essential body functions, as breathing or disposal of body wastes
lift/draw sheet
a small, flat sheet that is placed over the middle of the bottom sheet, covering the area of the bed from above the person's shoulders to below his or her buttocks
linen
white goods or clothing made with linen cloth
liquid diet
consist of liquids ( a liquid is described as food that is fluid at room temperature or becomes liquid at room temperature
listening
paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear
low sodium diet
This type of diet is good for those with heart disease or kidney disease.
making occupied bed
a bed made while a person is in the bed.
mask
prevents the spread of microbes to the resporitary tract
Maslow
Humanist psychologist who developed a pyramid representing heirarchy of human needs.
measuring temperature
We measure temperature with degrees F or C
mechanical soft diet
Gets its name from foods prepared with blenders, food processors, or cutting utensils. Makes food easier to chew
medical record
written account of a persons condition and response to treatment & care
medications
drugs that are administered to a patient who is sick or in pain
memory loss
indicative of aging process and neurologic or psychiatric disease such as Alzheimer's, depression, or stroke.
mentally impaired
a disorder that affects a person's mind, causing the person to act in unusual ways, experience emotional difficulties or both
microorganisms
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye
mistreatment
treated badily or abusively
mobility
All types of movement from one location to another.
morning care
Care given after breakfast; hygiene measures are more thorough at this time
mouth care
cleaning the teeth of a peron in the moring and at night; also sometimes after eating a meal
moving
to go from one place to another
multiple sclerosis
A chronic disease of the central nervous system marked by damage to the myelin sheath. Plaques occur in the brain and spinal cord causing tremor, weakness, incoordination, paresthesia, and disturbances in vision and speech
musculoskeletal system
the system of muscles and tendons and ligaments and bones and joints and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form
nail care
involves keeping the fingernails and toenails clean and trimmed
neglect
failure to act with the prudence that a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstances
non-contagious disease
not readily transmitted from one host to another
nonverbal communication
communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech
NPO
nothing by mouth (nil per os)
nursing assistant's role
to help with ADLs and aid the patient with day to day treatment
nutrition
n. process of receiving food to grow and be healthy
objective
not influenced by emotion or personal prejudice; based only on what can be observed
occupied bed
bed with a patient in it
ombudsman
a government appointee who investigates complaints by private persons against the government
oral care
care of the mouth, teeth, and gums.
oral hygiene
prevents mouth oder and pyorrhea, do more than once a day, every 2 hours for unconcious
orientation
a person's awareness of self with regard to position and time and place and personal relationships
osteoporosis
A disease of gradual bone loss, which can cripple people in later life
overbed table
the resident eats from and/or places their personal things on
oxygen
gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
pain
A symptom of some physical hurt or disorder
paralysis
temporary or permanent loss of motor control
paranoia
a psychological disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur
Parkinson's
a chronic, progressive disease that affect the brain area that controls movement
partial assistance
Helping a patient who can do some things for themselves.
partial bath
washing the face, hands, under arms, back, buttocks, and perineal
passive
not reacting visibly to something that might be expected to produce manifestations of an emotion or feeling.
pathogens
an organism that produces disease in a host organism disease being alteration of one or more metabolic functions in response to the presence of the organism
patience
A willingness to wait for someone or something without complaining
perineal care
Cleaning the genital and anal areas; pericare
personal belongings
items that belong to the resident
personal care
Look and smell clean, brush teeth, comb hair, neat clothing.
personal items
Items that are primarily for the comfort of the pt and are not medically necessary.
personal protective equiptment
Equipment used to protect a person from exposure to blood or other body fluids.
phone etiquette
answer the phone promptly and kindly, speak properly,give caller undivided attention,speak clearly,be courteous,ask permission from caller to place them on hold, and never allow an angry caller to upset you remain calm and composed
physical needs
the most basic needs, including food, water, clothing, shelter and sleep
physician's authority
By authority of the MD
positioning resident
moving the resident
post mortem care
care given to the body immediately after death
pressure ulcers
any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to underlying tissue; aka decubitus ulcers, bed sores, pressure sores. Any injury caused by unrelived pressure - poor skin care & immobility
preventing falls
do fall assesment on every patient, keep bed low wheels locked and bed rails up, call button near bed, non skid footwear and instruct client properly
preventing injury
Telling the client what they need to do to stop what has happened fromo happening again.
privacy
the quality of being secluded from the presence or view of others
progressive
the advance of a condition as signs and symptoms increase in severity
projection
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
prosthesis
Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
protective equipment
cover gowns, face protection devices, air filter respirators, gloves
pshychological needs
a patients mental needs
pulse
beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
radial
Lateral aspect of the forearm
range of motion
movement of joints through all normal motions
rationalization
(psychiatry) a defense mechanism by which your true motivation is concealed by explaining your actions and feelings in a way that is not threatening
rectal
Measurement of body temperature taken in the rectum
rehabilitation
the process of restoring or bringing to a healthy, useful state
religious service
the act of public worship following prescribed rules
reminiscing
recalling past experiences, usually in a positive and reflective way
reporting
oral account of care and observations
reposition resident
moving the resident to to make the comfortable and to prevent pressure ulcers
resident abuse
mistreatment of a resident usualy involving mental or physical attacks
resident belongings
items belonging to the resident
resident identification
any means of determining the residents identity
resident independence
incouraging the patient to do ADL on their own
resident unit
a single resident
Resident's Bill of Rights
rights guaranteed under the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) to residents in long-term care.
resident's chart
a chart ,that must be kept confidential, that gives medical history of a particular patient
resident's environment
the surroundings that best suit a particular resident
respectful treatment
the proper way that a nursing assistant should treat a resident
respirations
reflect the breathing rate of the patient
respiratory symptoms
hypoventilation, rapid shallow respirations, increased blood pressure, dyspnea, headache, hyperkalemia, disorentation, increased cardiac output, muscle weakness and hypoxia
respiratory system
system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
responding to resident behavior
allways be respectful and curtious to the resident
restorative care
Care that helps persons regain their health, strength, and independence
restraints
methods of restricting a person's freedom of movement, physical activity, or normal access to his or her body
rights
freedoms that are protected by a government's laws
scabies
Contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact
scale
pattern, make, regulate, set, measure, or estimate according to some rate or standard
secretions
sweat, oil, wax, used in the nonspecific external barrier
security
A feeling of being free from fear, danger, etc.
seizure
sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses (may or may not be associated with convulsion)
self-esteem
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
sensory system
The system of nerves which carries information from the body's receptors to the CNS
sexual harassment
comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome
sexual needs
the sexual needs or desires of a resident
sharps container
OSHA required receptacle for the proper disposal of sharps
shaving
the act of removing hair with a razor
shearing of skin
when skin sticks to a surface while muscles slide in the direction the body is moving
simple fracture
an uncomplicated fracture in which the broken bones to not pierce the skin
skin integrity
very important in infection control
slander
words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another
smoking
Harms the lungs and the transfer of O2 to the blood.
social needs
concerned with love, friendship, status, and esteem
specimen
sample of tissue or fluid
spiritual needs
helping patients develop awareness and maintain self awarness. lifes meaning and purpose, relationship to others, and relationship to a higher power.
standard precautions
precautions developed by the CDC that ensures that unversial precautions and body substance isolation practices
sterilization
the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means)
stress
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
stroke
a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain
suicide
act of killing one's self
sundowning
Signs, symptoms, and behaviors of AD increase during hours of darkness
systolic
measurement of blood pressure taken when the heart is contracting and forcing blood into the arteries
TED hose
elastic stocking to be worn for 8 hours to prevent swelling antiembolic stockings
telephone etiquette
Set of skills and attitudes used when answering the phone that allows the assistant to sound alert, interested, and concerned.
temperature
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
terminal illness
an illness or injury for which there is no reasonable expectation of recovery
threatening resident
a resident who is angered and may or may not become violent
toileting schedule
care planned scheduled times to take resident to bathroom as part of intervention to decrease incontinence
transfers
use drawshhet, never slide pt; move them toward patient's stronger side (if there is one) easier for pt to pull weaker side; use legs for lifting!
treating residents with respect
allways be kind and curtious
tub bath
patient is submerged, more thorough wash, can require sone assistance from the RN
tube feeding
Provision of food to the stomach through a tube (nose or small intestine)
unaffected
Side cane should be used on
unconscious
not conscious; not aware of what is going on
unethical behavior
behavior that does not conform to generally accepted social norms concerning beneficial and harmful actions
urethral
pertaining to the urethra
urinary catheter bag
a bag that is attatched to the bed or the patients leg that is used to collect urine from an immobile or incintinent patient
urinary problems
structural, autoimmune, cancerous, or infections
urinary system
removes waste products from blood and maintains water balance within body
urine
Fluid wastes removed from the body by the kidneys
vision change
most often the loss of vision over time
vital signs
Determinations that provide information about body conditions; include temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure
vomitus
food and fluids expelled from the stomach through the mouth; emesis
walker
a device used to assist with walking
wandering resident
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