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AP CSP Exam Vocab Review
Terms in this set (162)
error that results when the number of bits is not enough to hold the number, like a car's odometer "rolling over"
error that results when the number of bits is not enough to represent the actual number, like 3 digits to represent π as 3.14
Compressing data in a way that throws some data away and makes it almost impossible to recover the original, great compression, like JPEG images
Compressing data in a way that preserves all data away and allows full recovery of the original, good compression -- usually not as good as lossy, like PNG images
data about data, like a camera storing the location, aperture, shutter speed, etc. for a digital photo
code flows line by line, one after another, like a recipe
a boolean condition to determine which of two algorithmic paths are taken, aka if-then
using a looping control structure, like while, for, foreach, repeat, repeat-until, etc.
polynomial in the number of steps an algorithm takes in the worst case based on the input size
Not reasonable time
Usually exponential in the number of steps, like doubling every time your input grows by one
using a "rule" to guide an algorithm, like always walking toward the north star if you were stuck in a forest
A problem that is so difficult, we can't ever create an algorithm that would be able to answer yes or no for all inputs, like determining if a user's program run on some input would always stop and not run forever
Going one by one vs starting in the middle and going left/right like looking for a word in the dictionary
requires the list to be sorted in order and then cutting the list in half
Application Programming Interface
Lots of people to help with a scientific project, like asking everyone around the world to count the butterflies they see one day
Using distributed calculations and/or storage for big data or a web application
Asking lots of users online to help with something, like funding a project, or running SETI@Home to help look for extraterrestrial signals
An alternative to copyright that allows people to declare how they want their artistic creations to be shared, remixed, used in noncommercial contexts, and how the policy should propagate with remixed versions
A policy that allows people to have read access to things, e.g., libraries or online data
The # of transistors on a chip doubles every two years
A system where one user's computer connects through the Internet to another user's computer without going through an intermediary "centralized" computer to manage the connection
The idea that some communities / populations have less access to computing than others
Internet Service Provider
How does internet communication arrive at its destination?
Speech on the Internet goes from the source to an ISP, into the cloud, out of the cloud to another ISP, and to its destination
How can the government control speech on the Internet?
1) It can try to control the speaker or the speaker's ISP, by criminalizing certain kinds of speech. But that won't work if the speaker isn't in the same country as the listener.
2)It can try to control the listener, by prohibiting possession of certain kinds of materials. In the U.S., possession of copyrighted software without an appropriate license is illegal, as is possession of other copyrighted material with the intent to profit from redistributing it.
3) The government can try to control the intermediaries.
Transmission Control Protocol
Guarantees reliable transmission by breaking messages into packets, keeping track of which packets have been received successfully, resending any that have been lost, and specifying the order for reassembling the data on the other end.
User Datagram Protocol
provides timely but unreliable message delivery
HyperText Transport Protocol
which is used for sending and receiving web pages
Simple Mail Transport Protocol
used for sending email.
What does "End to End" mean in regards to the Internet?
"End to End," in the Internet, means that the switches making up the core of the network should be dumb—optimized to carry out their single limited function of passing packets.
Shortcut for going from binary to hexadecimal
To translate a binary numeral (like 11010111012) to hexadecimal, start by splitting it into groups of four bits, from right-to-left (like this: 11 0101 1101).
Then determine the value of each group and write the corresponding hex digit.
A network of independent but connected devices all over the world.
World Wide Web
The collection of interlinked website documents (such as HTML files) that you can view with a web browser by typing addresses like http://bjc.berkeley.edu/website/privacy.html.
Hypertext markup language
Most web pages are written with ________
Uniform Resource Locator
An address for accessing specific web data located on a server
A computer hosting data for others to access
the standard for communication between browsers and servers (usually "http" or "https")
Sometimes not visible in browsers like Google Chrome
The name of the server that hosts the data
the location of the data in a hierarchy of folders on the server
Standards for communication
An addressing system that finds paths to distant computers
Specifies how a router handles a request for another IP address.
There are multiple pathways among the physical connections of the Internet to create redundancy. Even if one pathway is unavailable, there is still another way to transmit a message from sender to receiver
There are two ____________ Internet addressing systems, domain names and IP addresses. These address ______________ works much like the postal system, which locates people first by state, then city, then street, then house number, then apartment, and then finally person.
ability to work around problems
the ability of the net to keep working even as the size of the network and the amount of traffic over the network increase.
A kind of malware that tries to spread itself over the network to other computers.
Helps protect against virus attacks
An attacker sends you an email that appears to be from some official organization (such as your bank) and tricks you into giving information to the attackers (such as your bank password).
Distributed Denial of Service
-Consists of sending a lot of requests to a server at the same time. This can overload the server's network bandwidth.
-Causes a temporary inability to reach the targeted server so other users of that server are denied service.
Which protocols are used to keep secure HTTP connections?
Transport Layer Security (TLS) or maybe an older version called Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
With these protocols, the site you are visiting sends its public key, and your browser uses it to encrypt the information you send.
Public IP Address
The IP address that is logged by various servers/devices when you connect to them through your internet connection.
Private IP Address
An IP address that's reserved for internal use behind a router or other Network Address Translation (NAT) device, apart from the public.
This address is big enough to support 2^32 computers. That's about four billion (4 · 109), but there are more than seven billion people on Earth, so there aren't enough IP addresses to go around. Each of the four numbers in a typical IP address today is an eight-bit byte with a value between 0 and 255
The long-term solution is to increase the length of an IP address. The new IP addresses are 128 bits wide, which is enough to support 2^128 (about 1038) computers.
The "connection points" of the Internet.
Networking devices that route traffic between subnetworks on the Internet.
When you send a message over the Internet, your computer divides it into small chunks called __________ that it sends individually, each on its own path. A __________ can include any kind of data: text, numbers, lists, etc.
Packet Switching Network
A digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data into suitably sized blocks, called packets, which are transmitted via a medium that may be shared by multiple simultaneous communication sessions.
Example : Internet
Application Layer Protocols
The highest level of abstraction because they manage how data is interpreted and displayed to users. These protocols give meaning to the bits sent by lower-level protocols; user and server computers must agree on what the bits mean, and application protocols (like HTTP) offer this.
Transport Layer Protocols
Manage the breakdown of a message into packets to be transmitted by lower level protocols and also the reconstruction of the message from the packets upon arrival.
Internet Layer Protocols
Manage the pathways that the data packets travel across networks. These protocols treat the Internet like one large network even though the physical reality on the lower level is one of many tiny subnetworks.
Network Interface Hardware
Also known as Link Layer
All Internet devices connect through a physical interface that uses a protocol to manage the connection to the local network. These local protocols are the least abstract because they deal directly with your physical hardware.
Domain Name System
The hierarchical addressing protocol that is human-readable
Who is in charge of the Internet?
The computers on the Internet and the connections among them don't belong to any one organization.
the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Controls the DNS hierarchy and the allocation of IP addresses.
For how long has the U.S. dominated the Internet and why?
The U.S. has "controlled" the Internet up until 2009. The Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) first developed the Internet in 1969.
Standards that are not owned by a company
(The Internet Engineering Task Force) and the Internet Society oversee Internet protocols
What does the Internet rely on to operate properly?
The internet relies on the cooperation of many different elements.
Used to limit the kinds of connections (HTTP requests, incoming mail, etc.) outsiders can make to your computer.
The set of rules you are using to encode the information
What tells you how to arrange the cipher's rules. _______ is applied using an algorithm to a string or block of unencrypted text to produce encrypted.
Analyzing the code and working back from it
A class of ciphers where the code is based on one letter of the alphabet standing for another letter consistently throughout the message
Trying all the possible ways to crack a code
Based on the idea that every language has its own specific patterns. The study of the frequency of letters or groups of letters in a ciphertext.
Words, letters, and phrases that are so common that it is hard to form a sentence without them
Examples: e and the
The way you scramble the alphabet actually changes throughout the message
Example: Vigenère cipher
Alphabet goes up on the top and also to the side in order to help write a code.
How can you crack Vigenère cipher?
By using a type of frequency analysis developed by Charles Babbage. Babbage realized that some patterns in a long message may still show up and he counted how many letters separated those repeated patterns.
One time pad encryption
Only way to create an unbreakable cipher. Uses the key that is as long as the message itself. Once a sheet is used for a message you destroy it. Then you use the next sheet for the next message so you never repeat a key. As long as you keep the pad safe, no one can ever decrypt the message.
The Enigma Machine
An example of a one time pad encryption device.
The British Bombe
Device developed by Alan Turing used by the British military to crack the enigma machine. As long as this device knew 20 characters of the message it could crack the code.
Numbers only divisible by themselves and one. Very useful for internet security because of this trait.
A code that is available for anyone to use.
A code that must remain confidential to its respective owner.
How does Public Key/Private Key Cryptography work?
Example: If Bob wants to send sensitive data to Alice, and wants to be sure that only Alice may be able to read it, he will encrypt the data with Alice's Public Key. Only Alice has access to her corresponding Private Key and as a result is the only person with the capability of decrypting the encrypted data back into its original form. As only Alice has access to her Private Key, it is possible that only Alice can decrypt the encrypted data. Even if someone else gains access to the encrypted data, it will remain confidential as they should not have access to Alice's Private Key.
Works by converting information or data into a language that cannot be understood in one glance. Usually, the information is sent to a person who can decrypt it using a key only they have access, keeping the information's privacy intact.
Three principles of Encryption?
Helps to verify that original author of the code is what he or she claims to be.
Essential towards maintaining the privacy of the message because it must be known that the message was not tampered with in any way, shape, or form.
Where the user sends a message to another person but later denies he or she actually sent the message, causing confusion and bringing the integrity of the message into question.
Three types of encryption?
1) secret key cryptography
2) public key cryptography
3) hash functions
Secret key cryptography
Where a single key is sent with the message to another user for the receiver to decode the message.
Public key cryptography
Where the user has a public key that he or she uses to encrypt the message to send to the receiver who will then use his or her private key to decode the message.
Types of systems where the user sends a plain text message to another user without a key. They are usually generated based on the message which helps determine whether the integrity of the message has been tampered.
Also known as a shift cipher, is one of the simplest forms of encryption. It is a substitution cipher where each letter in the original message (called the plaintext) is replaced with a letter corresponding to a certain number of letters up or down in the alphabet.
a Boolean operator.
have to be true in order for it to evaluate to true.
a Boolean operator. one or the other has to be true in order for it to evaluate to true.
a Boolean operator. Everything except the entered input is true.
an expression that results in a __________ value, that is, in a value of either true or false .
Composition of Functions
An act or mechanism to combine simple functions to build more complicated ones.
Set of rules performed if a certain condition is met.
A classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data. Examples include : real, integer, float (decimal point number)
A multi-step process that involves identifying a problem, isolating the source of the problem, and then either correcting the problem or determining a way to work around it. The final step of ______________ is to test the correction or workaround and make sure it works.
What the code is set to when it is started.
If () Clause
If this is true
Then do this
If () . . . Else Clause
If this is true . . .
then do this
. . . and if it is not true
then do this
Set up different variables to take a specific ______ _______.
Reports a newly created _________ with the given items.
The _______ items can be anything: text, numbers, blocks, scripts, and even other ______.
Numbers, symbols and operators (such as + and ×) grouped together that show the value of something.
If you need to test for more than one condition, then take one of several actions, depending on the result of the tests, you can nest multiple IF statements together in one formula.
Has an oval shape. It is called a " ______ " because when it's run, instead of carrying out an action, it reports a value that can be used as an input to another block.
A ________ is a special kind of reporter that always reports true or false. ________ have a hexagonal shape. The special shape is a reminder that predicates don't generally make sense in an input slot of blocks that are expecting a number or text.
Used when you only need a variable temporarily, during the running of a particular script. You can use ____ ________ block to make the variable. Example : for loop, the (length) only works inside the for loop.
() < ()
an Operators block and a Boolean block. The block checks if the first value is less than the other value. If it is greater, the block returns true; if not, it returns false.
() = ()
an Operators block and a Boolean block. The block checks if the first value is equal to the other value. If the values are equal, the block returns true; if not, false. This block is not case-sensitive.
() > ()
an Operators block and a Boolean block. The block checks if the first value is greater than the other value. If it is less, the block returns true; if not, it returns false.
() and ()
an Operators block and a Boolean block. The block joins two boolean blocks so they both have to be true to return true. If they are both true, the block returns true; if they are not all true or none true, it returns false.
() mod ()
finds the remainder after division of one number by another
() or ()
an Operators block and a Boolean block. The block joins two boolean blocks so any one of them can be true to return true — if at least one of them is true, the block returns true; if neither of them are true, it returns false.
This block can be stacked inside itself — this can be used to fit more booleans in.
Takes the ___________ ___________ of a number. The distance the number is away from zero. It is always positive.
reported input is false
If this is true
Then do this
If () . . . Else ()
If this is true . . .
then do this
. . . and if it is not true
then do this
Join words () >
An Operators block and a Reporter block. The block concatenates, or "links" the two values together and reports the result
Example : print "This is my" + " " + variable + " " + "class."
an Operators block and a Boolean block. The block checks if the boolean inside it is false — if it is false, the block returns true; if the condition is true, it returns false.
Reporters that report Boolean (true or false) values.
Set (variable name) to (value)
Variables block and a Stack block. The block will set the specified variable to the given value: a string or number.
Example : Set (score) to (0)
A Sensing block and a Boolean block. The block checks if its sprite is touching the mouse-pointer, edge, or another sprite (a Reporter block holding the sprite's name can be used). If the sprite is touching the selected object, the block returns true; if it is not, it returns false.
reported input is true
T and T equals
T and F equals
F and T equals
F and F equals
T or T equals
T or F equals
F or T equals
F or F equals
Why is the use of variables, script variables, and input variables important?
Because important information can be maintained and referenced. They can symbolically represent anything from numbers to words which can be helpful when programming in Snap.
Why is abstraction important?
It eliminates the details and condenses it down to one line of code.
Why is it useful to specify the type of input that a block is expected to receive?
So the function does not result in an error or does not work in the way the user intended it.
Logical Error or Semantic Error
You are not logically setting up the program to process correctly.
A standard way to perform an operation.
Tip for debugging code
Put a wait after every command
Low Level Programming languages
Languages that need few translations to reach machine code, but they tend to be more difficult to program in. Machine and Assembly Language.
High Level Programming languages
Languages that take more work for the computer to decode, but are easier to program in. Java, Snap, Python, C++.
Levels of Abstractions
EX: Internet languages, blocks that call blocks, high level programming languages vs low level programming languages
the programs and other operating information used by a computer.
An electrical circuit that produces output as determined by the corresponding logic table. (an "or" or "and" gate)
A function that returns a Boolean value. The only possible values of the bool type are False and True.
A process that repeats a series of steps over and over until the desired outcome is obtained. (looping)
Entails analyzing the data that the organization retains, determining its importance and value, and then assigning it to a category.
data that describes other data Ex: Memory size of an image.
Lossless data compression
data compression technique where the number of bits needed to store or transmit information is reduced yet the original data can be completely reconstructed. No information is lost.
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
Putting commands in correct order so computers can read the commands also know as "Order of Actions"
An algorithm written in the style of a programming language but using English.
A contraction of "Binary Digit". A bit is the single unit of information in a computer, typically represented as a 0 or 1.
The amount of data that can be transmitted over a network in a given amount of time.
Time it takes for a bit to travel from its sender to its receiver. The delay between transmit and receive.
A number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet.
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