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Arts and Humanities
Mrs. Kovalcik, Block 2
Terms in this set (75)
the device in a camera that focuses light into an image
a mechanical door in a camera that opens to admit light and then closes.
first permanent photograph
was made in France in 1826, by Niepce
created in France in 1907, by the Lumiere brothers = the first successful color process.
William Henry Fox Talbot:
In the mid-1880's, he made the first paper negatives & created a negative/positive approach that formed the basis for all the photographic processes that followed.
In 1888, he made the first mass-market, point -and-shoot camera, called the Kodak.
first cameras invented; used as drawing aids for artists by projecting upside-down and reversed images onto a ground glass that the artist could trace
the lens that most closely matches the view of the human eye in terms of area, perspective, and the relative size of objects. (50mm)
includes less of the scene and makes objects look closer. (75mm to 200mm)
includes more of the scene and makes objects look farther away than a normal lens. (6mm to 35mm)
variable focal lengths
fixed focal length
the arrangement and relationship of different parts that make up an image. In photography it is the arrangement of visual elements within the frame of the camera's viewfinder.
Rule of thirds:
the frame or view is divided into thirds both horizontally and vertically, and important pictorial objects or subjects are placed either on one line or at the intersection of two lines.
Elements & principles:
The elements are the building blocks, the ingredients that an artist uses to create a work of art. The principles are how the artist arranges the elements to create a unified work of art. (The principles are the guidelines used to arrange the elements in a work of art.)
Black & white photography
Better suited for strong graphic design, Better suited for rendering textures, Better suited for handling high-contrast lighting conditions
Holding your camera:
Elbows should be held close to the body to hold the camera steady
created by increasing a digital camera's ISO setting. Characterized by red, blue, and green specks in an image, results in decreased detail, lower resolution, and less saturated colors
3 components for exposure:
ISO, Aperture (f/stop), Shutter Speed
Depth of Field
How much of the scene is in focus, both in front of and behind the subject or the point of focus
"picture element", the smallest imaging unit in an imaging sensor or digital image, usually square or rectangular in shape
one million pixels
pixels per inch
the sharpness and fine detail in an image
the higher the ppi...
the higher the resolution or sharpness of the image
what ppi is good for making a print?
what ppi is good for the Web?
have been made with too much light, making a picture that is too light.
have been made with too little light, making a picture that is too dark.
measures the light that hits a scene rather than metering the light reflected from the scene
measures the light that is reflected from the scene or subject for a photograph.
Universal format (essential for posted photos to Web), Takes up less room on a memory card or hard drive
every time the file is opened, saved, and closed, it loses more information.
Image is not compressed so all the information is maintained in the image file, and data will not be lost with opening, saving, & closing. TIFF images provide the highest quality images.the file.
Save your original and make a copy of it to edit:
You will always have the original if you want to go back and try a different approach.
Portraits taken of an unaware subject; similar to a snapshot
portraits meant to focus on the subject and their environment. The environment should say something about the subject.
portraits posed and meant to focus on the subject and the subject alone
portraits taken of the photographer, by the photographer where the photographer is the subject
light strikes the scene from a specific direction, creating highlights and shadows. It can be dramatic and harsh
light is created when light is scattered and comes from all directions. It is softer and does not cast harsh shadows
created when a light source is placed behind the subject; line of light around the edge of the subject
shade from a large object such as a building; shade is not enclosed; there is a light source next to it: good for portraits because the lighting is not harsh, but the photographer can get catchlights from the neighboring light and reflected light
highlights in the eyes- gives the subject life
any light colored material used to bounce light onto the subject
hour before sunset and the hour after sunrise- creates softer, golden light
Why it is better to photograph a person outside on a cloudy day vs in direct sunlight on a bright sunny day.
cloudy days are more flattering because the light is diffused so it is soft and does not cast harsh shadows
A wide open aperture, small f stop is good for:
a close up formal portrait
How front lighting effects a portrait:
the main light is placed close to the lens, there are fewer shadows, & forms seem flattened.
How side light effects a portrait:
the main light is placed at a 45-90 angle to the lens; adds roundness and 3D modeling, can be more dramatic.
how back light effects a portrait:
main light placed behind the subject; creates a silhouette.
Things to consider when taking a portrait.
Make sure subject is comfortable, background, camera settings, lighting, viewpoint
Why one should use a reflector when taking formal photographs.
to eliminate harsh shadows, to soften, to create catchlights
the location from where you will take a photograph. The level of your camera in relation to your subject's eyes affects a viewer's interpretation of the subject.
To deal with a distracting background when taking action photos:
try changing your viewpoint. Get up high to shoot above possible distractions or get down low to frame the subject against the sky (if outside).
adding importance to the main subject or idea in your photography by making it more prominent and noticeable in the frame.
the critical moment at which your photograph best captures its subject.
Composing your photo:
Make sure the subject is looking toward the center of the frame and not out of it. When looking at images of moving subjects, you naturally look ahead into the area that it's travelling towards. For this reason, it's a good idea to leave more space ahead of the subject for it to move into than behind it. This keeps the viewer's attention contained within the picture as opposed to having it wander to the perimeter.
Camera motion blur:
camera moves, causing the entire scene to be blurry
Subject motion blur:
use a slow shutter speed without moving the camera; subject is blurred and background is in focus.
camera isn't exactly focused on the subject & photo is soft with indistinct blobs of light and dark that lack details and are round instead of oblong. Everything in the scene is blurred, but there are no double images.
Depth of field blur:
only a narrow area at the point of focus is sharp & the rest of the image is blurred. The further away from the point of focus, the blurrier the image gets.
Describe how to use the panning technique.
With arms held close to the body, move the camera to follow the subject through the scene, press the shutter release and follow through.
Explain why a photographer would want to use the panning technique.
To keep parts of the main subject sharply focused with the background blurred. Provides a sense of energy and emotion.
Describe how shutter speeds affect the way motion is captured in photographs.
The slower the shutter speed, the more the motion of the subject is blurred. The faster the speed, the better chance the motion will be frozen.
either the subject moves or the camera moves during the exposure. The subject could be blurred or frozen.
how the composition of objects in a photograph can lead a viewer's eye through the image. This may be a result of actual or implied lines or repeated elements.
A small aperture, large f stop is good for:
an environmental portrait
English high society
Vanity Fair, Vogue, fashion.
known as first great portrait photographer
Self portrait artist
German photographer, specialized in environmental portraits
Young adult, teenage portraits, Chicago project
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