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Chapter 6 Skeletal Pathological Conditions
Terms in this set (35)
The patient is more susceptible to fractures especially in the wrist, hip, and vertebral column. Occurs most frequently in post menopausal women, in sedentary, or immobilized individuals, and in patients on long term steroids. Characteristics include fractures in response to normal activity or minimal trauma, a loss of standing height greater than 2 inches, and the development of the typical cervical kyphosis( dowager's hump). Treatment includes but not limited to prescribing drug therapy, promoting calcium intake, and promoting active weight bearing exercises.
disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and phosphorus in the blood.
This disease results in fractures and noticeable deformities of the weight bearing bones. When the disease occurs in children, it is called rickets. Treatment includes daily administration of vitamin d, and a diet sufficient in calcium and phosphorus, as well as protein. Supplemental calcium may also be prescribed.
A local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood.
Most frequently caused by a staphylococcal infection, but it may also be caused by a viral or final infection. The infection usually spreads from adjacent infected tissue to the bone marrow. It may also be introduced directly into the bone tissue as a result of injury or surgery. Generalized symptoms include a sudden onset of fever (above 101), pain or tenderness, erythema (redness) and swelling over the affected bone, anorexia or loss of appetite, headaches, and general malaise (vague feeling of discomfort). There may be an open wound over the affected bone with purulent (pus-containing) drainage. Treatment includes bed rest and administration of intravenous or intramuscular antibiotics for 4 to 6 weeks. If antibiotic therapy is not effective, surgical treatment may be necessary to drain the bone of the pus and remove any dead tissue.
A malignant tumor of the bones common to young adolescent adults, particularly in adolescent boys.
It usually develops in the long bones or the pelvis and is characterized by pain, swelling, fever, and leukocytosis. Treatment includes chemotherapy, radiation and surgery to remove the tumor. Patients who respond well to this therapy may not lose the extremity to amputation. The prognosis with this combination therapies is about a 65% cure rate.
Malignant tumor arising from bone.
Also known as osteosarcoma, it is the most common malignant bone tumor, with common sites being the distal femur (just above the knee), the proximal tibia (just below the knee), and the proximal humerus (just below the shoulder joint). Early complaint of pain is often described as intermittent and dull aching. Night pain is common. As the disease rapidly progresses, the pain increases in intensity and duration. Other symptoms include weight loss, general malaise, and loss of appetite. Bone biopsy, X-ray films, bone scan, and MRI are the most common methods used to confirm the diagnosis and determine the location and the size of the tumor. Treatment includes radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery to remove the tumor. Patients who respond well to this combination therapy may not lose the extremity to amputation (which has historically been the treatment of choice).
Is the most common benign bone tumor.
the femur and the tibia are most frequently involved. Usually located within the bone marrow cavity. The onset is usually in childhood, but it may not be diagnosed until adulthood. Approximately 10% of all develop into malignant tumors (sarcomas).
A non metabolic disease of the bone
Characterized by excessive bone destruction (breakdown of bone tissue by the osteoclasts) and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts. The bone is weak and prone to fractures. After symptoms are present, the diseased bone takes on a characteristic mosaic pattern that can be detected with xray or bone scan; also known as osteitis derformans. May occur in one bone or several sites. The most common areas of occurrence are the vertebrae, femur, tibia, pelvis and skull. Individuals with symptoms may develop pathological fractures, may complain of bone pain, and may experience skeletal deformity such as bowing of the leg bones (tibia or femur) or kyphosis. The exact cause of this disease is unknown. It more commonly affects persons of middle age and the elderly with a higher incidence in men than women.
narrowing of vertebral canal, nerve root canals or intervertebral foramini of the lumbar spinal canal
The narrowing causes pressure on the nerve roots prior to their exit from the foramini. Symptoms include (but may not be limited to) numbness and tingling pain in the buttocks, thighs, or calves when walking, running, or climbing stairs. Standing still does not relieve the pain, but sitting or flexing the back may provide relief. This condition may be congenital or due to spinal degeneration. If conservative measures (improved posture, muscle strengthening, and weight loss) fail to correct the problem, surgery may be indicated to relieve the pressure on the area nerves.
the infants foot is fixed in plantar flexion (turned downward) and deviates medically (turned inward), and the heel is in an elevated position. therefore the infants foot cannot remain in normal position with the sole of the foot firmly on the floor.
abnormal inward curvature of the spine (a.k.a. swayback)
Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
present at birth
A broken bone
one in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin
compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound in the skin
a break that extends through the entire thickness of the bone
Incomplete fracture, one side of the bone is broken and one side of the bone is bent
occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself
fracture in which bone fragments are pushed into each other
fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
Occurs at the lower end of the radius, within 1 inch of connecting tissue with the wrist bones
minor fracture in which all portions of the bone are in perfect alignment
Break in bone when weakened by a preexisting disease
fracture that cannot be detected by X-ray until several weeks after the injury
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