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SOC 100- Exam 3
Terms in this set (85)
Techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in society
What does Social Control Provide?
How do sanctions effect social control?
They help us act "properly," by making it known that the failure to do so will result in the consequences
Positive social change usually comes from what?
Positive social control, through resistance in the status quo
Act of going along with peers
Compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
Informal Social Control
Social control carried out casually by ordinary people
Formal Social Control
Social control carried out by authorized agents
When is formal social control necessary?
When socialization and informal sanctions do not bring about the desired behavior
Why are some norms important to society?
-Some pertain to the whole society
-Some pertain to particular groups
-Some govern the behavior of social institutions
How do laws relate to social control and standards?
Creation of laws is a dynamic social process that continually reflects changing standards of what is right and wrong
Establishment of laws generates ________ because.....
Conflicts; of different values each individual has
View of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society's norms
Socialization develops ________
Self control, so we don't need further pressure to obey social norms
Behavior that violates standard of conduct or expectations of a group or society
T/F: Deviation from norms is always negative
F: Without some deviation change would never occur
What behavior is deviant?
-Depends on the contest
-Individuals and groups with greatest status and power define what is deviant
Labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups
What can people be stigmatized about?
Violation of law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties
Index of Crimes
Eight types of crime reported annually by the FBI in the Uniform Crime Reports
What do the Index of Crimes include?
-Motor Vehicle Theft
Trends in Crime
-Significant decline in violent crime nationwide in 1990
-Rates of reported crime remain well above 20 years earlier in the U.S.
Limitations of Crime Stats
-Only include reported crimes
-Victimization Survey Questionnaire can also be utilized
Illegal acts committed in the course of business activities, often by affluent "respectable," people
Why were White-Collar Crimes historically treated different then other crimes?
They were committed by people respected business people
Willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, good and services
What do supporters say about victimless crimes?
Having this illegal, is an way in which people are trying to make legislation to provide a moral code for audlts
What do critics say about victimless crimes?
They object to the notion that these crimes are "victimless,"
Work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities
Include: prostitution, gambling, and smuggling and selling drugs
What new technology do transnational organized crime groups utilize?
Crime that occurs across multiple national borders
T/F: Organized criminal networks are increasingly global
International Crime Rates
-Violent crimes are more common in the U.S in 1980s and 1990s than in Western Europe
-Crime skyrocketed in Russia
U.S. placed greater emphass on individual achievement
Durkheim's theory of Deviance
-Nothing is inherently deviant or criminal in any act
-Society identifies criminals for the sake of social order
-When social integration is weak, people feel freer to pursue deviant paths
-Deviance and crime actually can have positive impact on society
State of normlessness that typically occurs during a period of profound social change and disorder
Anomie Theory of Deviance
Five basic forms of adaptation to cultural expectations
Cultural Transmission School of criminology argues that ________.
Criminal behavior is leaned through social interactions
Social Disorganization Theory
Attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions
the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions
-Criminal Justice system serves the interests of the powerful
-Protects their own interests and defines deviance to suit their own needs
How do Race and Class deal with power and inequality?
Suspects treated differently based on race, sexuality, and social class
Power and Inequality (gender) Chesney-Lind and Balfour
Existing approaches to deviance developed with only men in mind
How did cultural views and attitudes toward women influence perception
Women take on more active and powerful roles
Biological differences between males and females; refers to who we are as males and females
How we "socially construct," gender by attaching social and cultural significance to biological differences between the sexes
Expression of masculinity and femininity are developed and reinforced through socialization
Boys must be....
Girls must be....
We receive positive and negative feed back based on our gender performance
When we interact with others we usually display....
Our gender clearly
Gender role socialization is __________
How do we recognize someone's sex?
Being a "man" or a "women" is something we do in relationships rather then...
Something we are in relationships
Pressures women face in society
To be thin, beautiful, submissive, sexy and maternal
Pressures for men in the face of society
Physically and Mentally tough
Nonconformists of men in society often face
Criticism and humiliation
Idea that men learn and play a full range of gender roles
How do gender roles change across culture
Expectations and performances vary; they are greatly influenced by physical environment, economy, and political systems
What have sociologists noted about gender and sex?
They are social constructions
Major shift in social life are brought about by
Challenging what is considered "natural,"
A belief in the social, economic, and political equality for women
First Wave of Feminism
Feminist movement in the U.S. born with the women's rights convention
-1872: Susan B. Anthony arrested for attempting to vote
-1920: 19th amendment granted woment the right to vote in national elections
Second Wave of Feminism
The feminist movement starting in the 1960s, particularly in America, where women campaigned for social and economic rights in addition to the more basic rights they had won during first-wave.
Third Wave of Feminism
Evolved around the late 1980s and into the 1990s; an extension of as well as a response to the shortcomings of the second wave
More varied then traditional feminist movements, including more diversity
Before the third wave of feminism, what group of people dominated the conversations?
White, Upper-Middle Class, Heterosexual women
The third wave placed an emphasis on
Personal empowerment; more open sexuality and sexual exploration
T/F: Recognition that defining ourselves by any one position we home may diminish the importance of other positions we occupy
A theory that maintains that our understanding of reality is shaped by the positions we occupy and the experience we have. Emphasizes the importance of listening to the voices of those who we are in some way considered outsiders
We cannot speak of gender, race, sexuality, or class as if they exist in isolation from each other. Instead these combine within us in ways that make it difficult to separate the effects of each
Our identities and activities as sexual beings
Sexuality in terms of Identity
An expression of who we are in a way similar to gender, race, ethnicity and class
Sexuality in terms of sexual practices
What we do (or don't do) and with whom
T/F Sexual expression is simply a result of biological urges and instincts
False: It is not a result of biological urges and instincts, but rather situated within and, as an outgrowth of existing social, cultural, and historical processes
What shift has been made in how gender and sexuality are defined?
As more complex, not just binary categories such as male or female
Categories of people to whom we are sexually attracted to, as a form of person as community identity
Individuals who appear to be biologically one sex but who identify with the other gender
What does recognition that there are more sexualities highlight?
It highlights the socially constructed nature of sexuality as opposed to its biological element, and creates more space for alternative expressions of sexuality
Why are differences in sexuality not just matters of orientation and alternative preferences?
They are connected to larger systems of power in which some statuses are privileged over others
Form of ethnocentrism that generalizes a particular cultural ideal of appropriate standards for sexual identity and practice onto all other populations, thus denying legitimacy to those outside it
T/F: Alternative sexualities are considered deviant, abnormal, or wrong
T/F: People who fall outside heteronormative ideals face prejudice, discrimination, and threats of violence
The Kinsey Reports (1948;1953)
Provided earliest in-depth research studies on people's sexual practices
National survey of family growth provides recent data and includes detailed information on actual sexual practices including:
-Number of opposite-sex partners
-Age and willingness of first sexual contact
-Birth control practices
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