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Bio 102 - Ch. 45
Terms in this set (80)
is a group of populations that interact with one another in the same environment.
of a community is a listing of the species within a community; it does not reveal the relative abundance of organisms.
of a community includes not only a listing of the species in the community, but also the abundance of each species.
island biography model
________________ of species diversity states that species diversity on an island depends on:
1. Distance from mainland
2. Total area of the island
is where an organism lives and reproduces in the environment.
is the role an organism plays in its community, including its habitat and its interactions with other organisms.
is the range of conditions under which it can survive and reproduce.
is the set of conditions under which it exists in nature.
____________ (e.g., raccoons, roaches, humans) have a broad range of niches. They have a survival advantage when environmental conditions are apt to change.
______________ (e.g., pandas, spotted owls, freshwater dolphins) have a narrow range of niches. They have a survival advantage in stable environments.
occurs when different species utilize a resource (e.g., light, nutrient) that is in limited supply.
_____________ developed the competitive exclusion principle, stating two species cannot coexist in a community if they share a niche, that is, if they use the same resources.
-- he grew two species of Paramecium in one test tube; only one survived if they were grown together.
Competitive Eclusion Principle
no two species can indefinitely occupy the same niche at the same time.
occurs when species shift niches; they no longer directly compete.
______________ studied the competition occurring in barnacles that consistently shift to match shoreline tidal zones.
occurs when one organism (predator) feeds on another (prey).
is also considered a type of predation because one organisms obtains nutrients from another organism.
Some predators reduce the ____________ of their prey.
1. Heightened senses
3. Protective armor, spines, or thorns
4. Tails and appendages that break off5)Chemical defenses
Prey have evolved a variety of antipredator defenses that include:
is a form of defense that allows the organism to blend into the background.
1. Warning coloration
2. Startle response
3. Association with other prey
Animals also may have the following defenses:
occurs if one species (the mimic) resembles another species (the model) possessing an antipredator defense.
___________, named for Henry Bates, is a form of mimicry in which one species that lacks defense mimics another that has successful defenses.
______________, amed for Fritz Müller, is where several different species with the protective defenses mimic one another (e.g., stinging insects all share same black and yellow color bands).
is a close relationship between members of two populations.
is similar to predation; the parasite derives nourishment from the host.
are always parasitic; parasites occur in all kingdoms of life.
are small and live inside the host.
are larger and remain attached to the body of hosts by specialized organs or appendages.
one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefitted.
both species benefit.
Crustacea, fish, and birds act as cleaners to a variety of vertebrate clients; this is called ______________
is reached when the rate of species immigration matches the rate of species extinction.
is an increase in vertical living spaces; a tree canopy provides a high-rise habitat and vertical patchiness.
occurs when two species adapt in response to selective pressure imposed by the other.
are especially prone to the process of coevolution.
is a change involving a series of species replacements in a community following a disturbance.
begins in a habitat lacking soil; this might occur following a volcanic eruption.
begins when soil is already present but it has been disturbed and returns to a natural state, as in an abandoned cornfield.
plants that are invaders of disturbed areas
climax-pattern model of succession
In 1916, Clements proposed the ___________________, that succession leads to a climax community that is characteristic for an area.
has a community composition that depends on climate.
in an ____________ populations interact among themselves and with the physical environment.
capture energy (e.g., sunlight) and use it, along with inorganic nutrients, to produce organic compounds; therefore they are also called producers.
are bacteria that obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as ammonia, nitrites, and sulfides; they synthesize carbohydrates and are found in cave communities and ocean depths.
need a source of preformed organic nutrients and consume tissues of other organisms; they are called consumers.
are animals that feed directly on green plants.
are animals that eat other animals.
can feed upon a variety of organisms, including plants and animals; humans are omnivores.
are nonphotosynthetic bacteria and fungi that extract energy from dead matter, including animal wastes in the soil, and make nutrients available.
Some animals (e.g., earthworms) feed on detritus the decomposing products of organisms—these organisms are called __________
Most ecosystems cannot exist without a continual supply of solar energy
Energy flow in an ecosystem is a consequence of two fundamental laws of ______________
The complex trophic (feeding) relationships that exist in nature are called ___________
grazing food web
A _____________ begins with leaves, stems, and seeds eaten by herbivores and omnivores.
detrital food web
A ___________ begins with detritus, followed by decomposers (including bacteria and fungi).
represents a single path sequence of organisms that form links.
is a feeding level of one or more populations in a food web
first trophic level
second trophic level
all the primary consumers
third trophic level
all the secondary consumers, etc
shows this trophic structure of an ecosystem as a graph representing biomass, organism number, or energy content of each trophic level in a food web
A pyramid of ___________ is based on the weight of organisms at each trophic level at one time; this eliminates size of the organisms as a factor.
are the pathways by which chemicals circulate through the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.
is that portion of Earth that acts as a storehouse for the element.
is the portion of the environment from which producers take chemicals, such as the atmosphere or soil.
s the pathway through which chemicals move through food chains.
is defined as the amount of a substance that moves from one component of the environment to another within a specified period of time.
In the water or _______________, freshwater evaporates and condenses on Earth.
is an underground storage of fresh water in porous rock trapped by impervious rock
ground water mining
when water withdrawal from aquifers exceeds replenishment, it is called "_________________."
Both terrestrial and aquatic organisms exchange carbon dioxide with the atmosphere—this is called the ______________
CO2, nitrous oxide, and methane are greenhouse gases that contribute to the rise in Earth's temperature, a phenomenon called _______________
The above gases and water vapor increase the ________________ that holds heat next to the Earth.
is a term that refers to the recent changes in the Earth's climate.
is the name of this over-enrichment that leads to algal blooms; when the algae die off, decomposers use up all of the oxygen and this can cause a massive fish kill.
occurs when N2 is converted to a form that plants can use.
is the production of nitrates (NO3-).
is conversion of NO3- to nitrous oxide (N2O) and N2.
occurs when nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides combine with water vapor in the atmosphere.
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