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Unit 6 - Honors World History
Terms in this set (111)
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country; one of the causes of WWI and fueled decolonization movements in Africa and Asia in the 20th century
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war; primary cause of WWI
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
In World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies.
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort; WWI was the first
a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other; utilized during WWI; conditions in trenches were demoralizing, unsanitary, and monotonous
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Introduced by the Germans and was used by both sides during the war; caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation
a German submarine that was the first submarine employed in warfare, initially used during WWI
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than US President Woodrow Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise of power in Germany in 1930s.
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I; proposed the creation of the League of Nations
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I; to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; US never joined due to disputes from Congress
the right of women to vote, 19th Amendment (1920)
Tzar Nicholas II
Russian Ruler during WWI who was unpopular with Russian people; overthrown in March 1917; executed by Bolsheviks after November Revolution (1917)
The revolution against the Tsarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917; eventually led to the rise of Lenin and Communism in the USSR
A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953); tried to rapidly industrialized Russia with his Five Year Plans and caused massive starvation due to the collectivization of agriculture
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s; had global economic and political consequences; governments began to take stronger holds on the economies
a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition; as seen in Nazi Germany and Mussolini's Italy
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocoust.
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood.
hostility to or prejudice against Jews.
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
Emperor of Japan; At the start of his reign, Japan was still a fairly rural country with a limited industrial base. Japan's militarization of in the 1930's eventually led to Japan's invasion in China and involvement in WW2.
This general was premier of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944
a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state; Nazi Germany, USSR under Stalin
information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
(1937) the murder of as many as 300,000 Chinese men, women, and children by Japanese troops
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with British prime minister Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler before WWII
Agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war; Hitler broke this agreement by invading Poland
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other; Hitler broke this pact by invading Russia
Battle of Britain
An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
200,000 died in one night. bombed by Allies. purpose: destroy German morale; example of how little civilian lives mattered during WWII
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others
American general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Two Japanese cities on which the U.S. dropped the atomic bombs to end World War II.
bomb dropped by an American bomber on Hiroshima and Nagasaki destroying both cities
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
City neighborhoods in which European Jews were forced to live
prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
Final solution of the Jewish question-murder of every single Jew-had begun-mass arresting, and trafficking of Jews to the concentration camps-mass killings occurred as well in the gas chambers
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
MacArthur in Japan
General Douglas MacArthur was appointed as the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan following WWII. During the four years following WWII, he worked with the Japanese government to draft a constitution, institute democratic reforms, reduce the size of the Japanese military, and privatize companies formerly run by the government.
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security; US actually joined!
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
Great Leap Forward
China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speed up economic and industrial development while simultaneously developing a completely communist government. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
(1966-1976) Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
Little Red Book
A book circulated throughout China during the reign of Mao Zedong, which contained his political philosophy for China. It was required reading in all schools.
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong; led to easing up on Communist beliefs and increase of private ownership and capitalism
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
A 1949 defense alliance initiated by the US, Canada, and 10 Western European nations in reaction to the spread of Communism
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
October, 1957 - The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets; made Americans and other capitalist nations concerned about Communist advances in science and technology
Barrier set up in 1961 to separate East and West Berlin
USSR communist reformer, a leader of soviet union and communism; responsible for the partial de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union. (1953-64)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
When the Soviet Union placed nuclear arms in Cuba the US was threatened. This initiated a stalemate between the Soviet Union and the US because each had the power to destroy each other.
Mutually Assured Destruction
(MAD) if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society (i.e. making the economy less Communist)
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems and less censorship of the media; illustrates the slow collapse of the USSR's communist policies
A policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Palestine Liberation Organization; a political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine
the Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, beginning in 1987.
political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule; helped India obtain independence from the British in 1947 with the use of civil disobedience and peaceful protest
opposing an enemy or oppressor by any means other than violence
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences; used by Gandhi in India and MLK during the Civil Rights Movement in the US
Indian National Congress
Indian nationalist group formed to work for rights and power for Indians under British rule
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).
after India's independence from Britain in 1947, India divided into Hindu-dominated but nominally secular India & Muslim state of Pakistan
Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. She was also prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977.
organisation that was at the center of the international movement opposing South Africa's system of apartheid and supporting South Africa's non-whites.
ANC leader imprisoned by Afrikaner regime; opposed the white settler minority government and apartheid; released in 1990 and elected as president of South Africa in 1994.
the principle or advocacy of the political union of all the indigenous inhabitants of Africa.
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought greater equality.
the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade
Acts of violence designed to promote a specific ideology or agenda by creating panic among an enemy population; examples: Al Qaeda, ISIS, IRA
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
An organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
a permanent global institution to promote international trade and to settle international trade disputes
Paris Climate Accord
An agreement within the United Nations to deal with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020
a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
Movement of individuals into a population
A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Unit 1 Vocabulary - Honors World History
Unit 2 - Honors World History
Unit 3 - Honors World History
Unit 4 - Honors World History
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