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CSET Science Subtest I: Earth Resources: Fossil Fuels
CSET Science Subtest I: Earth Resources terms
Terms in this set (62)
A mixture of hydrocarbons found in naturally occurring underground reservoirs
Composition of Natural Gas
70%-90% methane, and small proportions of ethane, propane, and butane. Some carbon dioxide. Trace amounts of other gases.
Dry natural gas
Refined natural gas that contains pure methane.
Wet natural gas
Unrefined mixture of methane, ethane, propane, and butane.
LNG (liquified natural gas)
Natural gas that has been cooled to a liquid to store and transport.
CNG (compressed natural gas)
Natural gas that has been compressed and stored at very high pressure in strong containers.
Main origin of oil and natural gas
Phytoplankton and zooplankton that accumulated in marine sediments beginning 300 million years ago
sludge (rich in organic matter) that accumulates at the bottom of lakes or oceans
Conditions necessary for the formation of fossil fuels
Heat, pressure, dearth of oxygen
Methane produced by the action of microorganisms on waste in landfills
The layer of sediment where oil and gas originate.
Composition of source rock
marine shale, limestone, or oil shale
a layer of relatively porous and permeable rock in which the oil and gas coming up from the source rock can reside.
a layer of cap rock that confines the oil and gas, must be impermeable.
Possible trap materials
Salt or cemented sandstone
Conditions necessary for oil and gas to accumulate in a major deposit
Source rock under a reservoir bed, under a trap.
an arch of stratified rock, an important geological feature that may be associated with reserves of oil, a type of structural trap.
Two kinds of traps associated with oil and gas deposits
structural traps and stratigraphic traps
traps formed by folding or faulting of rock layers
formed by changes in rock type or sedimentary features that create a space where hydrocarbons are confined by impermeable layers
Conventional Natural Gas
Natural gas that flows to the surface from an underground reservoir when a well is dug.
Unconventional Natural Gas
Natural gas that exists in other forms, making it more difficult to extract.
Units of measuring natural gas
Cubic feet-volume, used when gas is at normal temperature and pressure
Dollars per volume in cubic feet-price
Btu-energy; 1 Btu = energy to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water by 1 degree F at 1 atm.
Conversion of Btu to Joules
1 Btu = 1055 J
Conversion of Btu to kWh
1 Btu = 2.931x10-4 kWh
Conversion of Btu to Therms
1 Therm = 100,000 Btu
US Consumption of Natural Gas
22% of energy consumed in the U.S. comes from the burning of natural gas.
Other uses of natural gas
raw material in the production of pain and fertilizer, steel, glass, paper, and other products.
1/3 of California's total energy requirements.
Fraction of California's total energy requirements provided by natural gas
Length of time global natural gas supply is expected to last.
Petroleum or oil
A mixture of of hydrocarbons and organic compounds
Unrefined oil. May appear thick and brown or black, or clear.
Energy content of gasoline
125,000 Btu per gallon
an industrial fuel, also used to make petroleum products
for lubricating motors
fuel for jets and tractors
fuel for trucks
fuel for cars
Butane and propane
for heating, cooking, and making plastics
Heavy crude oil
crude oil that contains a mixture of hydrocarbons that are relatively dense
Light crude oil
crude oil that contains a mixture of hydrocarbons that are relatively less dense
Sweet crude oil
Oil with little or no sulfur
The quantity of oil (or other energy resource) that exists and can be recovered under current operating and economic conditions.
Reserves that are not as well known or characterized as proved reserves
Indicated or probable reserves
Reserves that can reasonably be expected to exist based on geological evidence and projections from proved reserves.
Strategic Petroleum Reserve
An emergency supply of crude oil created by the US government following the oil embargo of 1973-1974. Contains more than 700 million barrels.
Primary oil recovery
The process of drilling for oil and pumping it out. Accounts for 5-15% of the supply.
Secondary oil recovery
Water or gas is injected into the reservoir to increase the pressure, bringing the oil to the surface. Begins when the oil no longer rises naturally to the surface. Accounts for 15-45% of the supply.
Tertiary oil recovery
Remaining oil is made more fluid so as to bring it up more easily. Brings up another 5-15% of the supply, but is much more costly.
A type of sedimentary rock that, when heated, releases hydrocarbons.
Tar sands or oil sands
Consist of clay, sand, water and bitumen, a type of oil.
The ratio of the energy return to the energy invested.
Origin of coal
Peat, formed from plants.
Soft coal, with the highest energy content
Hard coal, with the second highest energy content
Lignite and Sub-bituminous Coal
Intermediate between hard coal and peat
Sources of coal
Under layers of sedimentary rock like limestone and shale, and over sandstone.
Pollution produced by coal-fired plants
Soot, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, mercury
Uses of coal
Generate electricity, produce steel, plastics, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, and medicines
Burns coal at lower temperatures, reducing the production of nitrogen oxides, and making it easier to remove sulfur oxides.
Gasification of Coal
Coal is converted to a gas, making it easier to remove impurities.
Length of time coal reserves are expected to last
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