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C&L Final Essay Questions
Terms in this set (27)
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that naturally evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
unconditioned response (UCR)
the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
any stimulus that, although initially neutral, comes to elicit a response because it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response (CR)
the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
Example of Pavlovian conditioning
a perfume (UCS) could create a response of happiness/desire (UCR). a person (NS) who wears that perfume (UCS) could become associated with that scent turning them into the CS. the person (CS) who has been associated with the perfume (UCS) can now be found attractive or desirable.
what is extinction/ what is the outcome of extinction?
occurs when a conditioned response is weakened or eliminated due to the CS being repeatedly presented without the UCS.
3 threats to extinction
spontaneous recovery, renewal effect, reinstatement.
occurs when the CR reappears after a rest period away from extinction. primary variable- the passage of time.
CR reappears when an organism is returned to the environment in which the CR was acquired. primary variable- context.
the independent presentation of UCS after extinction is enough to reenergize associations of the CS. primary variable-
stimulus substitution theory
states that the CS comes to replace the UCS
the preparatory response theory
states the the purpose of the CR is to prepare the organism for the presentation of the UCS
what are the two possible associative pathways that could operate in the stimulus substitution theory (assuming it were correct) to allow the CS to elicit a CR
S-S (stimulus stimulus) and S-R (stimulus response)
which pathway was operating during pavlovian conditioning according to Rescorla (1974) and how do the data implicate one way over the other?
conditioning the CR to be in total opposition with the UCR
using the conditioned opponent process describe a situation where compensatory conditioning occurs
an example would be heroin related cues (CS) causing an increase in blood pressure (CR). this occurs because heroin itself (UCS) causes a decrease in blood pressure (UCR), so according to the opponent process theory, when one detects a heroin related cue (e.g. room you shoot up in) the body prepares itself for what is about to happen (heroin --> decrease in blood pressure [a-process]) by increasing our blood pressure (b-process) to compensate. thus the room itself causes an increase in blood pressure. a process stays the same, b process grows over time. compensatory conditioning is an extreme ahead of time preparatory response.
What does the Rescorla-Wagner model predict? what is it
predicts the change in strength of conditioning. ∆Vn= K (A - Vn-1)
what does K represent in Rescorla-Wagner model?
salience of stimuli. reflects the strength of the stimuli of conditioning
what does n represent in Rescorla- Wagner model?
what does A represent in Rescorla- Wagner model?
asymptope of conditioning. the highest attainable value.
what does Vn-1 represent in the Rescorla Wagner model?
strength of conditioning through trial n-1.
what does ∆Vn represent in the Rescorla Wagner model?
change in strength of conditioning
fixed ratio schedule
reinforcement is provided for the emission of a fixed number of behaviors/responses. break and run pattern/post reinforcement pauses
variable ratio schedule
reinforcement is provided after a varying number of responses have been emitted. continuous and consistent responses.
fixed interval schedule
reinforcement is provided for the first response after a fixed amount of time. scalloped rate of responding.
variable interval schedule.
reinforcement is provided for the first response after a varied amount of time has elapsed. responding is continuous and consistent.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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