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Sociology of inequality final exam
Terms in this set (34)
What act limited the effectiveness of and made unionizing more difficult to accomplish?
What Supreme Court case was the basis for establishing corporate "personhood?"
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad
Which Constitutional Amendment did corporations use to invoke "personhood?"
Which Supreme Court case established that political candidates running for office have no restrictions in the amount of money they can spend to campaign?
Buckley v. Valeo
Which Supreme Court case established that corporations and unions have essentially no restrictions in the amount of money they can spend in an election?
Citizens United v. FEC
What are special interest groups?
Political alliances based on shared interest of some economic or social issue
What are PACs?
Political action committees: formed by special-interest groups to raise & spend money in support of political goals
What is meant by "arresting the imagination?"
Most efficient way to keep people going along w/a rigged game w/o causing trouble crucial to perpetuating inequality
What is the Thomas Principle?
Conditions/situations defined as real are real in their consequences...if people believe that it is true act on these beliefs
What is meant by "othering?" How does this reinforce inequality?
Define groups of people as different in some significant way; justifications for unequal treatment
What is the TINA problem?
There Is No Alternative
According to Schwalbe, what is "power" and how is it maintained and/or challenged?
Power is skill and resources to "make things happen".
Power is never absolute or permanent as long as imagination and critical thought are not fully repressed.
How do "doubt and distractions" affect how those in power can define reality?
Doubt & distractions seeking to impede critical thought and forestall action
What is meant by the "achievement ideology?"
Claim: education levels the playing field effort, intelligence, determination; good work recognized & fairly rewarded
Self-blame: internalized oppression
From Chapter 6, what are Schwalbe's main points about:
• Side bets a gamble/risk; sociologically, the secondary benefits that depend on some course of action; status, emotional or psychological benefit
• Identity stakes claiming an identity; being able to convince others of our identity(ies); why do those who are exploited not rebel? Maybe the game seems fair?, side bets at stake, identity and self-conception at stake, adequate pay-offs, even in a rigged game, no alternative arrangements presented/seem better, othering
• The psychological wage of whiteness whiteness as "superior", exploitation of poor whites, continued subjection of African Americans & other racial groups
• Power and privilege members of dominant groups act to preserve their power & privilege: hold each other accountable for acting in ways that preserve exploitive social arrangements (ex: women as supporting actors), reproduces systems of inequality.
Value of "side bets" too great to give up in exchange for the unknown.
Dissenters ignored by society & media..social media = powerful tool
• Nets of accountability being subject to explain and justify our actions; deviance vs. status quo; attribute our actions to group membership identity stakes
• Different types of resistance (which is most effective for combating inequality?) isolated acts, passive acts, mass resistance; mass resistance most effective.
What are the different stages of social movements?
1.) Emergence- coming together to share concern over the status quo
2.) Coalescence- rallies, demonstrations, protests; make issue public; movement spreads to other regions/cities
3.) Formalization- established leaders; message must become formalized to remain on political scene
4.) Decline- run out of money, support, ideas; OR successfully met goals
What are Schwalbe's main points about why ideas and actions matter for reducing inequality?
Conversation matters: w/o crisis or a triggering event, people can still learn about alternatives vs. fall into the TINA trap
Actions matter: individuals' actions are important; society and social institutions are comprised of individuals
Accountability matters: culture of solidarity; identify oppressors & hold them responsible.
Who is Grace Lee Boggs? What social movement was she mainly involved with?
She was a social activist who was mainly involved with the Civil Rights Movement.
What is meant by the contact hypothesis? How does this help humanize "others"?
Contact hypothesis reduces prejudice, debunks stereotypes
What is one of the main sources of funding for public schools?
What is the second largest source of debt in the US? (After housing debt, which is #1).
What are the common characteristics of minimum wage workers?
Over age 20, women, people of color, have some college education
What are some of the potential large-scale benefits of raising the minimum wage?
Estimated $32 billion in new economic activity; 140,000 new full-time jobs
Has the value of minimum wage remained steady, increased, or decreased over time?
What is residential segregation?
Segregation or isolation from other racial groups in neighborhoods & cities
What are some of the consequences of residential segregation?
It affects: schools, employment, exposure to crime, concentrated poverty, health status, single parenthood/teen pregnancy, and educational levels
Is race or class more likely to determine the neighborhood you live in?
What is gentrification?
Displacement or "urban renewal" replacing public housing w/expensive apartments/condos
What are the main reasons for racial differences in wealth accumulations?
Home ownership & home value
How does the cost of education relate to the cost of imprisonment?
Per pupil spending = $9,000/year on avg
Cost of avg. 4-year prison stay = $132,000
$9,000 x 13 years of education = $117,000
What are some of the consequences of mass incarceration? Who is most likely to be affected by these consequences?
What was Pager's main finding in her study using employment audits/job callbacks?
White men with jail time got more callbacks than black men with no jail time.
In what ways have the creation & enforcement of drug laws been racialized in the United States?
Crack vs. cocaine very similar in effect, extreme difference in punishment
80-90% of those arrested for crack-related offenses = Black
Estimated 65% of crack users are white, but only 4.7% of defendants
45.2% of powder cocaine convictions = white
What are some of the ways Schwalbe suggests we can "accomplish" equality?
1.) Freeing the imagination
2.) Creating new rules of the game
3.) Creating cultures of solidarity
4.) Challenging the "common sense" status quo morality and everyday practices that legitimate inequality
• Requires opposing ALL FORMS of inequality
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