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Terms in this set (160)
In the definition of psychology, the term behavior means
overt actions and reactions.
A psychologist is interested in finding out why married couples seemingly begin to look like each other after several years of marriage. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of
Who is considered to be the father of African American psychology?
Francis Cecil Sumner
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis focused on
early childhood experiences.
Which psychologist dared to ignore the whole consciousness issue and return to a study of scientific inquiry by focusing on observable behavior?
Which perspective is often referred to as the "third force" in psychology and focuses on a person's freedom of choice in determining their behavior?
Which perspective best explains the bystander effect whereby individuals will be less likely to help someone in need because of the presence of others close by?
If Dr. Byers uses an eclectic approach in her clinical treatment of children, what is it that she is doing?
She is using a combination of perspectives to treat different clients.
Dr. Colton identifies himself with the largest subfield of psychology. What kind of psychologist is he?
Micah has recently been diagnosed with a psychological disorder that is best addressed initially with medication. He would likely benefit the most by first seeing a ___________.
Which step in the scientific method is derived from the goal of description?
perceiving a question
Brianne wants to find an explanation for the behavior of her lab rats in her study. Which step in the scientific method is she currently focusing on?
testing a hypothesis
The famous study of Phineas Gage, who survived when a metal rod pierced his skull, is an example of a
A researcher finds that as her subjects increased the number of hours they spent exercising, the overall weight of her subjects decreased. This would be an example of a _________ correlation.
A researcher wants to study the effects of texting on driving. Students in Group A drive a car in a computer game and see how many virtual accidents they have. Students in Group B are asked to drive the same virtual car but they must respond to and send at least three texts. The number of virtual accidents is measured for each group. What is the independent variable?
A researcher asks an assistant to conduct a study on her behalf. She specifically tells her assistant only to share the results anonymously and not include the names of the students along with their scores. Such an experiment would be considered a
Double-blind studies control for
the placebo effect and the experimenter effect.
In the stereotypes and athletes study, who was the control group?
those students who completed the survey prior to the intelligence test
Dr. Calvin needs just one more participant to complete her experiment. Lisa, a student of Dr. Calvin, has almost completed the experiment when she announces she wants to quit because the experiment is boring. What options does Dr. Calvin have?
Dr. Calvin must let Lisa go and find another participant.
A famous golfer advertises a new golf bracelet that helps minimize fatigue while playing. If Bethany decides to order the bracelet because she believes that such a well-known personality should know if it works or not, she has made an error in which of the following?
Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true.
In the structure of the neuron, the _______ receives messages from other cells.
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells generate a fatty substance known as...
Which of the following insulates and protects a neurons axon, as well as helps speed along electrical impulses?
When a neuron is in the resting potential state, the neuron is negatively charged on the ______ and positively charged on the ______.
Which neurotransmitter stimulates muscle cells to contract but slows contractions in the heart?
Heroin mimics the actions of endorphin's, inhibiting pain signals and creating a "high" feeling. Heroin is an example of a(n):
Involuntary muscles are controlled by the _____ nervous system.
As you take notes, your heart beats at a normal rate. Your breathing is normal and your stomach slowly digests your earlier meal. What division of the peripheral nervous is currently in action?
Robert has a difficulty sleeping for the past 6 months and his body seemingly no longer differentiates between night and day. His doctor believes the problem lies with Robert's endocrine system. What gland will Robert's physician focus on?
Which gland is known to influence all other glands within that endocrine system?
Bailey is a subject in a study on memory and problem solving. The researcher is applying magnetic pulses to her brain through copper wire coils positioned directly above her scalp. Bailey's study would best be described as a...
Noninvasive Stimulation Technique.
Which technique of studying the brain involves injecting the patient with radioactive glucose?
Maria often sleeps soundly and rarely awakens to any outside noise. However, the cries of Maria's baby can awaken her immediately. What part of the brain is responsible for this reaction?
Nicole and Camille are synchronized swimmers for their college swim team. They often work long hours to ensure the movements in their routine are perfectly timed. What part of their brains must Nicole and Camille rely most upon?
Your psychology professor refers to this as the great relay station of the brain. What part are they referring to?
Which part of the brain is involved in the creation of memories and is often linked to Alzheimer's disease?
Jessica has suffered a severe blow to the back of the head when she was thrown from her horse. Subsequently, her occipital lobe has been injured. Which of her senses has the highest chance of being affected?
Jaime's grandfather recently suffered a stroke and has had difficulty with language production ever since. Most likely, he has experienced damage to the ______ area of his brain.
Felicia is recovering from a brain injury. She is able to speak fluently but often uses incorrect words in a sentence. In one instance, she said, "I would like something to drink. Can I have some battery?" This problem is known as....
Although the brain works largely as a whole, what is not a correct pairing of the hemisphere and function?
Right; control of the right handed motor functions
Jane is aware that she is sitting in her psychology class and it is almost lunchtime. She is also aware of how tired she is since staying up late to watch a movie. thus, if Jane is aware of what is going on around her and what is going on within her, then it is safe to say that she is in
a state of waking consciousness
What part of the brain is influential in determining when to sleep?
As the sun begins to set, Winston finds himself becoming more and more sleepy. What structure is sensitive to light and influences when to go to sleep and when to awaken?
Carlos is pulling an all-nighter in preparation for his big psychology test tomorrow. According to research, what is the result on Carlos' memory when he deprives of sleep the night prior to his exam
Carlos will actually remember less if he deprives himself of sleep the night before
Your uncle Karl, who recently retired, has mentioned how he doesn't sleep as well as he did when he was younger. For many years, he regularly slept about 7-8 hours, but now that he is in his 60's he tends to get only 5-6 hours of sleep per night. What would you tell him?
Getting less sleep seems to be a common consequence of aging
You find yourself driving very late at night. As you are driving, you realize that you actually were falling off to sleep for a couple of seconds. Such a phenomenon is known as
Studies have found that certain chemicals that help repair damaged cells only function while we sleep. What theory best explains this?
restorative theory of sleep
In which stage of sleep do spindles occur?
N2 (NREM Stage 2)
Josef has had a very demanding day. Though his work is not physically challenging, it tends to mentally drain him. What type of sleep will Josef probably require more of?
Your doctor has told you that your youngest son suffers from somnambulism. What is another name for that?
Gerald has difficulty falling off to sleep. Harley can fall of to sleep easily but often wakes up early. Dale typically sleeps for 10 hours. All three are tired and not rested upon rising. who seems to be experiencing insomnia?
all of them: Gerald, Harley, and Dale
Very young infants who suffer from sleep apnea may be more at risk for SIDS. Why might these infants have difficulty breathing?
the brain stem is not yet fully mature
Bill suddenly and without warning slips into REM sleep during the day. What is this called?
Calvin had a dream about his dog snoopy in which he constantly looked for him but couldn't find him. In reality, Calvin's dog had died after being hit by a car. According to Sigmund Freud, his dream in which he was searching for his dog is an example of _____________, while the inner meaning that he misses his dog terrible is an example of ___________.
manifest content; latent content
When Tawny is asked to write down her dreams as a class assignment, she is bothered by the fact that her dreams often seem to jump randomly from scene to scene with little meaning. What theory best explains her dreams?
Anthony's therapist is using hypnosis to help him recall the night he was supposedly abducted by aliens. Danny's therapist is using hypnosis to help him prepare for the pain of dental surgery since Danny is allergic to the dentist's painkillers. Patrick's therapist is using hypnosis to help him quit drinking and smoking. Which client has the highest chance of success?
Bobby agreed to be hypnotized during a comedy routine. While hypnotized, he stood on his chair and crowed like a rooster. Later, when his friends asked why he did this, Bobby replied that he didn't know, it must have been because he was hypnotized. What theory best explains this behavior?
the social-cognitive explanation of hypnosis
Jackie has found that when she tries to quit drinking, she gets headaches, has night seats, and shakes uncontrollably. Such a reaction is an example of
What is the most commonly used and abused depressant
Which drug, depending on the dosage, can be a hallucinogen, stimulant, depressant, or painkiller?
Sheila almost got hit by a car at a street corner because she was too busy texting on her phone. From that day on, Sheila looks before she reaches the street corner. Her change in behavior is a result of
At home, you rattle the chain on your dog's leash every time you prepare to take him for a walk. After several episodes like this, you find that your dog comes running to the front door even when you pick up the leash and put it back in the closet. In this example, what is the conditioned stimulus?
the sound of the leash
A child has been classically conditioned to fear a white rat. If the child does not show fear when shown a black rat, this is called
During the cold winter, you have stopped taking your dog for walks. What's more, your dog has gotten used to the fact that when you accidentally rattle his leash, he isn't going for a walk, and subsequently he doesn't come running to the front door. What has occurred?
Rhonda has tartar sauce with her fish one night. The next morning she was nauseated and sick for much of the day. The next time she was offered the chance to go out for fish, she felt queasy and declined. Her queasiness at the thought of fish with tartar sauce was probably due to
a conditioned taste aversion
Caitlin works in the psychology department's rat lab. In her studies, she found that many of her lab rats would develop a conditioned taste aversion to certain foods after as little as one trial. Caitlin's psychology professor refers to this as a classic example of
Blake finds that if he washes his car prior to going out on the town, more of his friends want to ride along with him. What theory would best explain his willingness to always wash and clean his car before going out?
Thorndike's law of effect
In classical conditioning, behavior typically is ______, whereas with operant conditioning, behavior is ______.
Where do secondary reinforcers get their power from?
Pavlov's classical conditioning
Positive reinforcement results in a _______ in the target behavior and negative reinforcement results in a _______ in the target behavior.
an increase; an increase
Belinda has a terrible headache. If she takes some aspirin so as to make her headache go away, this would be an example of
Ben gets paid every 2 weeks. In one 2-week period, he works a total of 20 hours. During another 2-week period, he worked a total of 50 hours. Regardless of the total number of hours he works each week, he is paid every 2 weeks. What schedule of reinforcement is being used?
Denise is grounded for coming home after curfew. Additionally, her parents have taken away her cell phone for a month. Losing her cell phone privileges is an example of
punishment by removal
What is the relationship between negative reinforcement and punishment?
Negative reinforcement strengthens a response while punishment weakens a response
Which of the following is an example of the use of extinction with operant conditioning?
A mother ignores her child's temper tantrum so that the behavior ultimately goes away
The animals studied would learn skills through reinforcement but eventually revert back to their genetically controlled patterns of behavior
Studies by Keller and Marian Breland found that many animals exhibit instinctive drift. What does this mean?
Jose was lying in bed when he suddenly realized how he might deal with a fast approaching deadline at work. When his coworkers asked how he came up with his idea, he said, "It just came to me out of nowhere." Psychologists would refer to this as
Jody failed repeatedly in college algebra. Finally, she have up and was seriously considering dropping out of college. One day, her best friend offered to personally help her if she signed up for college algebra again, but she refused. What concepts might explain her reluctance?
What does AMID stand for?
Attention, Memory, Imitation, Desire
Darla has noticed how some of her friends have lost weight and gotten trim by exercising 1-2 hours each day. However, she has no plans to imitate their behavior. What component of Bandura's model of observational learning will explain why Darla has not started a similar weight loss program?
Darla is not motivated nor does she have the desire to begin the program
primary sex characteristics
are directly involved with human reproduction
What is the average age in the United States that menarche typically begins?
If the gonads within an embryo produce testosterone because of the presence of a Y gene on the sex chromosome, then the ______ will develop and the _____ will deteriorate
Wolffian ducts; Mullerian ducts
an intersexed person is
a person born with ambiguous sexual organs
Annika's mother wants her daughter to grow up to become a mother of a large family. Such an expectation for Annika might be seen as an example of her
Darla shares with a close friend that she often feels a strong desire to be another gender and that it bothers her so much that she is having problems at work and in her social life. What is the term used to describe this?
in social learning theory, gender identity results
from observation and imitation
Jennifer's aunt tries to explain that running around with boys on the playground isn't "ladylike." Such a statement could be an example of
Plateau occurs in
The refractory period is a time during which
a man cannot have another erection
Which of the following studies was the most controversial for its method of gathering information
Masters and Johnson's study
The Kinsey report indicates that more than ______ as many men had intercourse by age 16 than did women
Parental Investment theory seeks to explain
why men have sex more often than women
Research on the epi-mark offers a ______ explanation to the existence of homosexuality
The idea that homosexuality evolved as a way to aid the continuation of the homosexual person's genes through the nurturance of _____ hypothesis.
sexual dysfunctions and problems can be caused by
organic, psychological, and sociocultural factors
Which of the following sexually transmitted infections can ultimately affect the brain?
Brandon has a couple of painful sores on his penis and experiences severe itching and burning in the surrounding area. Brandon probably has
Which of the following is a way in which HIV can be transmitted?
through exposure to contaminated blood or other body fluids containing contaminated blood
Alicia is horrified to hear that her date from last night carries the human immunodeficiency virus. While they did not engage in sex, they did share a quick kiss at the end of the evening, hastened by her phone ringing in her apartment. Besides discussing her concerns with her date should they go out again, what precautions should Alicia take?
She should try not to worry, since kissing has not been proven to be a successful way to transmit HIV, and follow-up with her doctor or other health-care provider if she has concerns or questions
Dean has a comprehensive final exam in three weeks that he is concerned about. His concerns prompt him to go ahead and start studying, and in doing so, he feels less worried as the exam approaches. In this example, the exam, Dean's concerns, and his behavior may be seen as an example of
Researchers today believe that eustress is based on _____________ of motivation
the arousal theory
Unpredictable, large-scale events that create a great deal of stress and feelings of threat are called
A score above 300 on the SRRS would indicates person has ___________ of becoming ill or having an accident.
A very high risk
In addition to being emotionally intense, many items on both the SRRS and CUSS are stressful because they
Involve the most hassle
Research suggests the number and perceived severity of daily hassles are strong predictors of
Based on previous research, who is more likely to experience lack of money as the biggest daily hassle in their life?
Time pressure is often found to have a negative impact on
Micheal was cut from his high school basketball team. He told his friends that he was cut because the coach did not like him, but his close friends know Micheal was cut because he hardly practiced. In this situation, Micheal's excuse is an example of a(n) __________ frustration, while the fact he despises practicing is an example of a(n) _______ frustration
Kina's Husband comes home from work....Ultimately Kina finds herself yelling at their youngest child for apparently no good reason other than being frustrated. Kina is displaying
Erica was very frustrated with her job and ultimately decided to quit. What do we call this method of handling frustration?
This approach is called escape or withdrawal
Keenan is trying to decide if he should.... Keenan's situation is an example of a(n) ___________ conflict.
In which of Selye's stages is death a possible outcome?
According to Richard Lazarus, determining what can be done to deal with one's stress is an example of a ______________ appraisal.
Jolene rarely takes any worm home, preferring to leave her work....Which of the following statements about Jolene is most likely TRUE?
She is a type B personality
Azriel seems to thrive on stress and feels very much in control of his life. He would probably be labeled a ___________ personality
Huong has moved from China to the US....This is an example of
Gary is having trouble with psychology....Gary's method of coping is
To alleviate her stress....Such an approach is known as
Which of the following people may have the greatest ability to cope with stress?
Mary, a very religious person who is involved in her community
Saul admits that he conforms so as to be liked by others.
normative social influence.
According to the text, in which of the following has groupthink been known to occur?
the sinking of Titanic
Many businesses now require their employees to work in teams, believing that a group of four to five employees will accomplish more than four to five individuals working alone. This is an example of what concept?
Maria was approached by her neighbor asking her to adopt two to three kittens that were abandoned by their mother. While Maria refused to take in three kittens, she did agree to adopt one. what compliance technique did her neighbor use on Maria?
Which of the following would probably not be a prime candidate for membership into a cult?
Lawrence, who has only has a high school diploma but tends to be independent and happy with his life
Follow-up studies to Stanley Milgram's research have suggested that a teacher's willingness to deliver potentially lethal shocks may be a product of _______ than of obedience.
The public service messages that encourage parents to sit down with their children and talk frankly about drugs are promoting which method of attitude formation?
Researchers have found that a ______ degree of fear in a message make it more effective, particularly when it is combined with ______.
moderate; information about how to prevent the fearful consequences
Sandy was a juror in the trial for a man accused of stealing guns from a sporting goods store. The defendant was not very well spoken and came from a very poor background, but Sandy listened carefully to the evidence presented and made her decision based on that. Sandy was using _______ processing.
Which of the following should LaShonda avoid if she wants to reduce cognitive dissonance?
ignoring the conflict altogether
Gerard goes to a job interview dressed in patched blue jeans, a torn T-shirt, and sandals. His hair is uncombed and he hasn't shaved in a few days. Obviously, Gerard knows nothing about about
If behavior is assumed to be caused by external characteristics, this is known as
Thomas like to "hang with the guys." These people with whom Thomas identifies most strongly with are called a(n)
The "Robber's Cave" experiment showed value of ______ in combating prejudice
equal status contact
Vivian and Steve met at work. At first they were just friends, but over time, they found themselves falling in love - or as Vivian tells her friends, "Steve just grew on me!" According to research in interpersonal attraction in interpersonal attraction, the most likely explanation for their attraction is
According to Strenberg, a couple whose love is based off of intimacy and passion but who are are not committed to a long-term relationship are in the form of love called ______ love
The concept that aggression results from a social role is based on what psychological theory?
To which two processes do most social psychologists attribute the failure of those around LaShanda Calloway to help her?
bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility
Cara knows that she can help people simply by dialing 9-1-1 on her cell phone if an emergency arises. Which step in the decision process for helping would Cara be at?
planning a course of action
Which of the following would the field of social neuroscience be most likely to study?
what parts of the brain influence social behavior
What was the most likely reason that someone would perform an exorcism?
to release evil spirits
In 1972, a jet carrying a rugby team from Peru crashed high in the snow-covered Andes Mountains. Many of the players survived for over 2 months by eating the remains of those who died. Psychologists justified their cannibalism because that was the only way they could have survived so long without food. By what definition might their behavior best be classified?
Which of the following is an example of cultural relativity?
While Dr. Akido knows that his patent, Aki, believes her anxiety has a biological explanation, in learning more about her family of origin, he suspects it has a psychological cause.
How many axes does the DSM-5 use to aid mental health professionals in making a diagnosis?
Trypanophobia, is also known as a fear of receiving an injection, is an example of
Aaron hates to go to restaurants for fear that he will be seated in the far back of the restaurant and be unable to get out in case of an emergency. This may be a symptom of
Ria experienced a sudden attack of intense fear when she was boarding a place with her friends to fly to Mexico for spring break. Ria's heart raced, she became dizzy, and she was certain she would die in a plane crash if she boarded the plane. Subsequently she did not go on her trip, an the plane arrived safely in Mexico 3 hours later. Ria experienced
a panic attack
Dr. Kirby has been meeting with 9-year-old Loren, whose family lost everything in a tornado. In her initial visit, Loren was diagnosed with acute stress disorder. During a 2-month follow up with Dr. Kirby, Loren is still exhibiting many of the same symptoms. What should Dr. Kirby do?
Dr. Kirby will revise Loren's diagnosis from ASD to posttramatic stress disorder.
Survivors of natural disasters like Hurricane Sandy in 2012 may experience higher incidences of
posttraumatic stress disorder
Calvin is terribly worried that his college education was wasted when he didn't get his dream job. Furthermore, Calvin believes he ruined his future when he did poorly in his job interview. Calvin explains, "I had to ace the interview. It had to be perfect, and it wasn't!" How might a cognitive-behavioral psychologist classify this distorted thought process?
Which type of depression is the most common type of mood disorder?
major depressive disorder
Behavioral theorists link depression to ________, whereas social cognitive theorists point to _______.
learned helplessness; distortions in thinking
Individuals with bulimia often rationalize that since they have had a single treat, their diet is ruined and therefore they might as well go ahead and eat excessively. Such irrational thinking is an example of the cognitive distortion known as
Binge-eating disorder is different from bulimia in that individuals with binge-eating disorder
do not typically purge the food they eat
Dissociative amnesia is different from retrograde amnesia because
dissociative amnesia is typically psychological in origin
Depersonalization/derealization disorder is a type of dissociative disorder that has been found to have possible ______ foundations for the experience of detachment.
On your first call as a paramedic, you enter the house of a man who has covered his walls and ceiling in aluminum foil to protect his brain from the thought-controlling rays of the government. This is an example of a ______ delusion.
Rodney has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. He rarely smiles and often shows little emotion to any situation. Psychologists refer to this characteristic as
What neurotransmitter was first believed to bet he cause of schizophrenia?
Colleen found herself attracted to her psychology instructor. She would frequently go by his office just to be near him. When didn't respond to her advances, Colleen eventually told him that she had thoughts of killing herself so that he would spend time trying to counsel her. What personality disorder best describes Colleen's thinking and behavior?
borderline personality disorder
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