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US History vocab
Terms in this set (83)
A result of rapid urbanization that caused workers to demand better working conditions and pay.
1862 law that opened the great plains to settlement by giving settlers 160 acres of land that had to be "improved" over 5 years.
Strong belief that new immigrants carried cultural characteristics that were inferior and stricter restrictions on immigration were needed.
Government policy to break up tribal lands and give land to individuals in an attempt to assimilate Native Americans.
Corrupted officials who bribed or aided immigrants in return for votes, often stole money from the city on overpriced building contracts.
Civil Service Reform
To eliminate patronage, civil service exams were given so candidates had to earn position based on merit and their qualifications.
New national political party representing the common man, platform included free coinage of silver, direct election of senators, term limits, graduated income tax, shorter work day, immigrations restrictions.
The founder of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, a group concerned about the destructive effects of alcohol; the first woman dean at Northwestern University; the first woman to be represented in Statuary Hall in the U.S. Capitol.
by linking the east coast and the west with the golden spike in Promontory Point, Utah, it sped the settlement of the Great Plains and the west.
one of the richest men in the world in the early 20th century; he used the Bessemer process to excel in the steel industry. His "Gospel of Wealth" believed it was the duty of the wealthy to spread their surplus wealth to improve the conditions of the poor.
founder of Hull House where she provided help for poor immigrants; first woman awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
The change from the mostly rural society to a mostly urban one.
Founded by DuBois & Wells, group created to fight for rights of African Americans, will help lead the litigation side of Civil Rights movement.
Initiative, Referendum, Recall
Progressive supported political reforms created to end corruption and make state governments more directly accountable to the people.
Term describing the United States as an Imperial Power similar to European Nations.
Graduated income tax, progressive policy.
Made manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol illegal.
This led to the direct election of U.S. Senators by popular vote.
Gave women the right to vote in every state.
Causes of WW1
Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism, Expansionism (M.A.N.E.); assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Causes of US Entry into WWI
German unrestricted submarine warfare, Zimmermann telegram.
1898 war that was influence by Yellow Journalism, the sinking of the USS. Maine and the United States desire to expand.
Treaty of Versailles
Agreement, signed by the Big 4, ending WW1 including and the League of Nations blamed Germany for the war and required Germany to pay in reparations.
Wilson's plan for world peace following WWI emphasizing cooperation among international leaders.
Led by Henry Cabot Lodge America returned to this policy shying away from international involvement.
Selective Service Act
Draft law enforced during World War 1 to increase military involvement.
Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy helped obtain this land to increase transportation between Atlantic & Pacific Oceans.
Term for journalists that exposed corruption in business and government that led to change such as Upton Sinclair's novel "The Jungle" leading to the Pure Food & Drug Act.
Type of combat used during WW1 that included barbed wire, poisoned gas, and machine guns resulting in stalemate; eventually overrun by tanks.
Post WW1 new fears of Communism led to the Palmer Raids and rise in Nativism.
Ban on alcohol that led to the creation of speakeasies and the growth of organized crime; eventually repealed by the 21st Amendment.
Promoted the idea, as seen in the Eugenics movement, that lower class citizens were not capable of economic success.
Term used for women in the 1920's who challenged the traditional roles of women in society.
Agreement by European leaders to give into actions of dictators that led to indirect U.S. involvement in WW1 such as the lend-lease act.
The attempted genocide of European Jews by the Nazi Party including atrocities committed in concentration camps.
The attack on this naval base on Sunday, December 7th, 1941 led to President Roosevelt asking Congress to declare war on Japan.
Executive order 9066 forced the relocation of the Japanese Americans into these after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Navajo Code Talkers
Native American soldiers that developed an undecipherable code based on their native language.
African American pilots whose contributions led to the desegregation of the U.S. Military.
Home front war-effort that encouraged rationing of commercial food by civilians producing their own food.
Ads or posters to promote emotional support and volunteerism for the Allied cause during WW1
Top secret program to develop the A-bomb which led to destruction of Japanese cities and the unconditional Japanese surrender.
Policy to prevent the spread of Communism.
Congressional Committee created to conduct loyalty checks and investigate possible communist sympathies.
Truman promised to support any country fighting Communism.
Extremely successful plan to provide economic aid to help rebuild post-war European economies at the same time making communism less attractive.
In response to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin allies airlifted supplies for over a year until Stalin lifted the blockade.
Group of western European countries, including the US & Canada, that formed an alliance against the threat of Communism.
The policy of containment led to U.S. involvement in a war in the Korean peninsula in 1950.
Part of the Red Scare of the 1950s that included a "witch-hunt" which frightened many Americans.
Touched off by the launching of Sputnik led to an increase in defense spending, educational changes and in the 1960s, JFK will pledge to get a man on the moon.
Belief that if one country falls to communism then all surrounding countries will fall to communism as well.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The placement of Soviet missiles 90 miles from Florida led the world to the brink of nuclear war, JFK announced a quarantine (or blockade) to prevent the arrival of any additional weapons.
The Soviet Union and the U.S. engaged in a competition to build both conventional and nuclear weapons in an attempt to accomplish world dominance.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Congress voted to give Johnson full military powers to stop North Vietnam's aggression after the gulf of Tonkin incident.
In order to be able to supply the amount of troops necessary to fight in Vietnam war a random lottery of young men was instituted.
Disparity between what Johnson and reporters were saying that contributed to loss of faith in government.
Increased in intensity as the war escalated, college campuses were shut down, Kent State 4 students killed by national guard during protest.
Nixon insisted that most Americans still supported the war.
18 year olds gain the right to vote.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as the accommodations followed the famous phrase "separate but equal".
Desegregation of Armed Forces
Truman issued an executive order to desegregate the armed forces and end discriminatory practices in the federal government, this set a precedent for later civil rights legislation.
Civil Rights Movement
Boycotts, protests, marches, sit-ins, freedom rides, and government legislation led to increased political participation by minorities.
Sweatt vs. Painter
Supreme Court ruled in favor of the NAACP on behalf of Sweatt that UT's separate law school failed to qualify as "separate but equal".
Brown vs Board of Education
Supreme Court unanimously overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and ended segregation in public schools, key turning point in the Civil Rights Movement.
NAACP secretary whose refusal to give up her seat on a bus led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Little Rock 9
9 African American students tested the Brown ruling and tried to integrate Central High in Little Rock, President Eisenhower had to call in the national guard to enforce integration.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Passed to increase African American voting in the south by giving federal courts the power to register African Americans.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, or ethnic origin in hotels, restaurants, and all places of employment doing business with federal government or engaged in interstate commerce.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965 law that outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states, including literacy tests.
Executive order required employers with federal contracts to take positive steps to raise the number of their minority employees to correct imbalances.
United Farm Workers leader whose boycotts led to greater wages and working conditions for migrant workers.
Scandal involving break in that led to an investigation and exposed a coverup that involved Nixon.
Camp David Accords
Carter successfully negotiated face to face meetings of the President of Egypt and Prime Minister of Israel ending 30 years of warfare by having Israel promise to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
Iran Hostage Crisis
Angry Iranian students captured the staff of the US embassy in Iran and kept them hostage for more than a year, reflected poorly on US for inability to rescue, negotiations finally led to the release of hostages the day Carter left office.
Marines in Lebanon
Due to a civil war in Lebanon, Israel asked for US and France troop support, suicide bomber attacked American & French Barracks in Beirut, 241 US Marines died, Reagan withdrew American forces.
Secret foreign policy operation by official in the Reagan administration that secretly sold arm to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages (in defiance of Congress and policy of not to negotiate with terrorists) investigation led to several officials being jailed, Regan cleared of any wrong doing, tarnished image of US around world and made Americans question the government.
Persian Gulf War
UN forces under US leadership launched an attack against Iraq for invading Kuwait, the invasion was success and Saddam Hussein agreed to remove all Iraqi troops and pay Kuwait for damages.
End of the Cold War
1991 Soviet Union dissolved and was replaced by Commonwealth of Independent States, President Bush Sr. recognized Russia & offered economic assistance.
The end of the Cold War created problems in the former country of Yugoslavia as ethnic tensions that had been kept in check by communism began to mount. Serbians living in Bosnia began a campaign to rid the area of Muslims. International peacekeeping forces were sent in the area.
Terrorist attack on the Twin Towers, Pentagon, and a fourth plane that crashed in Pennsylvania, 3,000 people killed, Osama & al Qaeda took credit for these attacks.
Allowed law enforcement officials and intelligence agencies the power to conduct sweeping searches and surveillance, detain immigrants, and monitor bank accounts.
Election of 2008
Election of the 1st African American President, Barack Obama.
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