Terms in this set (99)
One of the adductor muscles of the hip, its main function is to adduct the thigh and it is innervated by the obturator nerve
it contracts and pulls the hip towards the body's midline. This action is a fundamental part of walking, sprinting, and a variety of other bipedal motions.
pull the thigh medially
runs along the interior of the femur. it is also essential to all elements of hip movement
runs along the upper part of the femur. it is also essential for all hip movement.
runs along the outer edge of the back of the pelvis, together they control the hip adduction, abduction, flexion, and rotation.
runs along the top of the hips to the base of the lowest vertebrae. these muscles are essential to hip movement and the oration of the lumbar spine.
runs along the iliac crest. these muscles are essential to hip movement and limbo-pelvic stability.
runs across the top of the thigh from the outer hip to the inner thigh. this muscle effects knee function
rest along the from of the sacrum. it affects hip movement stabilizes the hip joint.
runs along the outside of the front thigh. it stabilizes the knee and controls all movement for that joint.
runs along the inner thigh close to the knee. it is essential to all movement for the knee joint.
runs along the vastus laterals, the length of the front thigh. it is also essential to all movement for the knee joint.
runs down the center of the front thigh. it is also essential to knee motion and stability.
Superficial erector spinae
critical for shoulder to shoulder movement.
it effects spinal flexion and also stabilizes the lump-pelvis-hip complex
they effect and control the core motion
they effect and control all core motion
runs under the external oblique along the sides of the torso. they affect and control all core motion as well as stabilize the limbo-pelvic-hip (LPH) complex
they help stabilizer the internal organs and the LPH complex
it pulls open thoracic cavity to accommodate oxygen intake
biceps femoris long and short head
essential in knee and hip movement
runs along the back femur through the center of the leg. essential to hip, knee, tibia movement.
runs along the outside of the tibia from under the knee to the ankle. it helps stabilize the foot.
runs along back of the tibia under the fibula. helps control the foot.
the fleshy part of the back of the lower leg. it also runs down the sides of the achilles tendon. it controls walking motion in the leg and ankle and supports the foot.
the back of the leg below the knee. it works with the soles to control walking and stabilize the foot.
runs along the tibia on the outer part of the leg. it flexes and everts the foot.
peripheral nervous system
Includes all parts of the nervous system that branch off from the central nervous system, such as cranial and spinal nerves
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
surrounds the brain and central nervous system. it helps insulate and protect the brain and centra; nervous system from hard blows to the head or unanticipated changes in speed.
resides on the outer layer of bones. very tough and serves protection.
contains more spaces than compact bone and houses bone marrow
surrounds the muscle fiber (or cell), which separates it from the other muscle fibers
surrounds the bundle of muscle fibers and is itself wrapped within the perimysium
(outer covering of the muscle) holds several bundles of muscle fibers.
are between each fascicle of muscle fiber. each muscle of the body contains the endomyrsim, fascicle, perimysium, epimysium, and blood vessels.
Types I fibers
considered slow twitch fibers. they require oxygen and provide power during endurance activities.
Type II fibers
fast twitch fibers. they rely on anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis, and the ATP-PC system) as their energy source. these muscles are helpful for power- or speed - related activities that require explosiveness in the individual. They also subdivided into type IIa which are known as intermediate fast-twitch fibers because they can use aerobic(oxygen) and anaerobic energy pathways.They are a combination of type I and II. Type IIb fibers use only the anaerobic energy pathways. the term fast twitch refers to type IIb fibers.
Nervous system has 3 main functions :
Sensing- perceive internal and external alterations to the body.
Integrating- compute sensory information to communicate to the body to correct action to take.
Communicating- transmit information to the muscles of the body when it is time to initiate movement and control this movement.
are pulled together by a system, of ligaments, which give these types of joints greater range of motion. some specific types of synovial joints include ball in socket joints, hinge joints, and pivot joints.
have no system of ligaments and have a limited range of motion. examples include some of the flat joints of the skull and some of the nonmoving joints of the ankle.
main connective tissues between the bones and joint.
bulges that protrude from the bone. same examples include the rounded ends of the ferrous and humerus.
Trochanters- rounded end of the femur, the hip bone is known as the greater trochanter.
tubercles- the top of the humerus; there are tubercles in the shoulder complex also.
Condyles- bottom of the femur, where condyles help form the knee joint
Epicondyles- the bottom of the humerus, where epicondyles help form the elbow joint.
parts of the bones that are smooth or flat. common ones are the fossa or sulcus. these are locations where muscle or body tissues can attach or pass between.
Create primary movement. they are called prime movers.
counteract the actions of agonist muscle.
act at the same time as an agonist muscle to assist in the primary movement.
stabilizes and support muscles while they perform a primary movement.
humerus and femur. shaft of a long bone is called diaphyses, is made up of compact bone. ends of a long bone is called epiphyses, which are made up of cancellous bone.
found in groups and aid movement. found in the wrist and ankle.
ribs, scapula, sternum, and cranial bones.
vertebrae, facial bones, and skull bones.
ligament tears or stretches excessively
A condition resulting from damaging a muscle or tendon
can lead to sprain or muscle strain.
inflammation of a bursa between joints
inflammation of the tendon that connects the arm muscles to the elbow
contain myofibrils consisting of actin (thin) and myosin(thick) filament.a repeating section of actin and myosin is called a sarcomere (functional unit of a muscle).
controlled by motor neurons. motor neuron and the fibers it activates are called motor unit.
when a motor neuron inervates a muscle fiber, the thick and thin filaments shorten by sliding past one another, which produces force.
provides a plane for tropomyosin and calcium (which are essential for muscle contraction) to bind.
blocks myosin from binding to keep the muscles relaxed
resides in the joints and connective tissues of the body (tendons, ligaments, and muscles). they sense changes in the compression or stretching of the muscles or tissues. muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and joint receptors are different types.
sense alteration in the length of the muscle and the rate of alteration. they contract when stimulated to protect the muscle from overstretching.
Golgi tendon organs
sense alteration in muscle tension and the rate of alteration. operate at the junction of a muscle and a tendon. relax when they are stimulated to protect the muscle from over stressing.
changes in speed in a joint. sense overextension of the joint and respond to provide protection for it
c1 and c2 of the neck. provides rotation of one bone around another.
(elbow) provides flexion and extension.
(between the carpal and metacarpal of the thumb) provides flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction.
allows one bone to slide over another; found in wrist and ankles (tarsal bones)
(between the metacarpals and phalanges) can provide flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction.
ball and socket joint
provides flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation.
new red blood cells within the bone marrow. red blood cells come from hemocytoblasts that quickly replicate themselves. red blood cells have a lifecycle of three months, platelets have 7 days and granulocytes 7 hours.healthy red blood cells are necessary for energy maintenance since oxygen must bind to each red blood cell as part of the aerobic energy pathway.
provides support system for the muscles and organs of the body and initiates movement. also protects major organs and creates red blood cells in the bone marrow. stores minerals such as calcium and phosphorus (essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal function). regulates mineral balance.
has nearly 80 bones
appendicular skeletal system
more then 120 bones
cardiovascular system functions:
it removes metabolic waste from and delivers nutrients to the body. white blood cells provide protection from foreign microbes and viruses. finally, the cardiovascular system helps keep our bodies in a state of homeostasis by controlling body temp, ph balance, and cellular water retention.
help control the movement of the head and cervical spine
run down the sides of the neck at the shoulders. they help stabilize and control the movement of the cervical spine
runs along the sides of the cervical vertebrae. they help control the movement of the cervical spine.
helps stabilize and move the cervical spine
it affects the up and down motion of the scapula
essential to shoulder and elbow movement. runs along the top length of the humerus
supports shoulder and elbow movement.
supports elbow movement. runs along the outside of the humerus (side of the upper arm)
supports elbow movement. runs along the outside of the humerus (the side of the upper arm)
runs along the lateral edge of the scapula. it accelerates and decelerates shoulder rotation
sits under and along the scapula. it accelerates and decelerates shoulder rotation
covers the back along the scapula. it accelerates and decelerates shoulder rotation
runs along the interior of the top of the shoulder. it helps accelerate abduction and decelerate adduction of the arm
runs around the rib cage underneath the AirPort. they affect the movement of the scapula
runs across of the top middle of the back, just under the neck. they also affect the movement of the scapula
Lower Trapezius, middle trapezius, and upper
runs along the sides of the spine from the base of the neck down. they are also essential to all aspects of movement of the scapula
runs along the front of the chest. it is essential to all movement of the shoulder complex
connects the front of the shoulder to the top ribs. it pulls the scapula forward
runs along the chest to under the armpit. it is essential to shoulder rotation and movement
the fleshy muscle that runs along the top of the arm. it is essential to all shoulder movement